australe was collected from ruderals
of Hajipur and Patna locality, Bihar, Patna.
This shift to the domesticated form of quinoa suggests that across a wide geographical area, from at least Titicaca to the Cuzco region, formal field systems were being constructed and that weeding was one of a number of major new agricultural strategies, hence removing Ambrosia and other ruderals.
pallidicaule (canihua), as well as numerous ruderal varieties.
No-uniformity in germination flush is a characteristic of pioneer plants, also designed ruderals
(RADOSEVICH et al.
Significant values of ruderals
and meadow/pasture plant pollen, as well as Poaceae pollen, refer to relatively open landscape in the area.
As regards plant strategy types, generalists (CSR-strategy), stress-tolerant species, and ruderals
were dominant in the herbaceous vegetation (Table 2).
Still, the increased proportion of ruderals
, especially Urtica, is significant.
The first axis separates native dominant and late seral species plots, at the positive end of the axis, from introduced ruderal
species plots at the negative end of the axis and native ruderals
at just above zero (Fig.
But the intermediate group, stress-tolerant ruderals
(S-R), is represented by Acer campestre, Malus sylvestris, Pyrus communis, Prunus padus, and Prunus avium.
The pollen evidence also has additional clear signs of human activities, such as Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae (goosefoot family), ruderals
, Plantago types (plantains), and Juniperus (juniper), suggesting creation of pastures, forest grazing, and onset of the formation of an agrarian landscape at Keava in the Early Pre-Roman Iron Age (Fig.
We also found seeds of herbaceous species that are known as ruderals
Among the weeds and ruderal
plants several field weeds were observed: corn cockle (Agrostemma githago), Centaurea cyanus, wild turnip (Brassica campestris), foxtail (Setaria sp.