sanction


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sanc·tion

 (săngk′shən)
n.
1. Authoritative permission or approval that makes a course of action valid. See Synonyms at permission.
2. Support or encouragement, as from public opinion or established custom.
3. A consideration, influence, or principle that dictates an ethical choice.
4.
a. The penalty for noncompliance with a law or legal order.
b. A penalty, specified or in the form of moral pressure, that acts to ensure compliance with a social standard or norm.
c. A coercive measure adopted usually by several nations acting together against a nation violating international law.
tr.v. sanc·tioned, sanc·tion·ing, sanc·tions
1. To give official authorization or approval to: voting rights that are sanctioned by law.
2. To encourage or tolerate by indicating approval: His colleagues sanctioned his new research.
3. To penalize, as for violating a moral principle or international law: "Half of the public defenders of accused murderers were sanctioned by the Texas bar for legal misbehavior or incompetence" (Garry Wills).

[Middle English, enactment of a law, from Old French, ecclesiastical decree, from Latin sānctiō, sānctiōn-, binding law, penal sanction, from sānctus, holy; see sanctify.]

sanc′tion·a·ble adj.
Word History: Occasionally, a word can have contradictory meanings. Such a case is represented by sanction, which can mean both "to allow, encourage" and "to punish so as to deter." Sanction comes from the Latin word sānctiō, meaning "a law or decree that is sacred or inviolable." This noun is related to the Latin verb sancīre, which basically meant "to render sacred or inviolable by a religious act," but was also used in such extended meanings as "to ordain," "to decree," and "to forbid under pain of punishment." Thus from the beginning, two fundamental notions of law were wrapped up in the word: law as something that permits or approves and law that forbids by punishing. In English, the word sanction is first recorded in the mid-1500s in the meaning "law, decree." Not long after, in the 1600s, it also came to be used to refer to the penalty enacted to cause one to obey a law or decree. From the noun, a verb sanction was created in the 18th century meaning "to allow by law," but it wasn't until the second half of the 1900s that it began to mean "to punish (for breaking a law)." English has a few other words that can refer to opposites, such as the verbs dust (meaning both "to remove dust from" and "to put dust on") and trim (meaning both "to cut something away" and "to add something as an ornament").

sanction

(ˈsæŋkʃən)
n
1. final permission; authorization
2. aid or encouragement
3. something, such as an ethical principle, that imparts binding force to a rule, oath, etc
4. (Law) the penalty laid down in a law for contravention of its provisions
5. (Law) (often plural) a coercive measure, esp one taken by one or more states against another guilty of violating international law
vb (tr)
6. to give authority to; permit
7. to make authorized; confirm
8. to impose a sanction or penalty on
[C16: from Latin sanctiō the establishment of an inviolable decree, from sancīre to decree]
ˈsanctionable adj
ˈsanctioner n
ˈsanctionless adj

sanc•tion

(ˈsæŋk ʃən)

n.
1. authoritative permission or approval, as for an action.
2. something that serves to support an action, condition, etc.
3. something that gives binding force, as to an oath or rule of conduct.
4.
a. a provision of a law enacting a penalty for disobedience.
b. the penalty imposed.
5. action by a state or states calculated to force another state to comply with its obligations: to invoke sanctions against an aggressor.
v.t.
6. to authorize, approve, or allow.
7. to ratify or confirm.
8. to impose a sanction on; penalize, esp. by way of discipline.
[1555–65; < Latin sānctiō]
sanc′tion•a•ble, adj.
sanc′tion•a`tive (-ʃəˌneɪ tɪv, -nə-) adj.
sanc′tion•er, n.
sanc′tion•less, adj.

sanction


Past participle: sanctioned
Gerund: sanctioning

Imperative
sanction
sanction
Present
I sanction
you sanction
he/she/it sanctions
we sanction
you sanction
they sanction
Preterite
I sanctioned
you sanctioned
he/she/it sanctioned
we sanctioned
you sanctioned
they sanctioned
Present Continuous
I am sanctioning
you are sanctioning
he/she/it is sanctioning
we are sanctioning
you are sanctioning
they are sanctioning
Present Perfect
I have sanctioned
you have sanctioned
he/she/it has sanctioned
we have sanctioned
you have sanctioned
they have sanctioned
Past Continuous
I was sanctioning
you were sanctioning
he/she/it was sanctioning
we were sanctioning
you were sanctioning
they were sanctioning
Past Perfect
I had sanctioned
you had sanctioned
he/she/it had sanctioned
we had sanctioned
you had sanctioned
they had sanctioned
Future
I will sanction
you will sanction
he/she/it will sanction
we will sanction
you will sanction
they will sanction
Future Perfect
I will have sanctioned
you will have sanctioned
he/she/it will have sanctioned
we will have sanctioned
you will have sanctioned
they will have sanctioned
Future Continuous
I will be sanctioning
you will be sanctioning
he/she/it will be sanctioning
we will be sanctioning
you will be sanctioning
they will be sanctioning
Present Perfect Continuous
I have been sanctioning
you have been sanctioning
he/she/it has been sanctioning
we have been sanctioning
you have been sanctioning
they have been sanctioning
Future Perfect Continuous
I will have been sanctioning
you will have been sanctioning
he/she/it will have been sanctioning
we will have been sanctioning
you will have been sanctioning
they will have been sanctioning
Past Perfect Continuous
I had been sanctioning
you had been sanctioning
he/she/it had been sanctioning
we had been sanctioning
you had been sanctioning
they had been sanctioning
Conditional
I would sanction
you would sanction
he/she/it would sanction
we would sanction
you would sanction
they would sanction
Past Conditional
I would have sanctioned
you would have sanctioned
he/she/it would have sanctioned
we would have sanctioned
you would have sanctioned
they would have sanctioned
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Noun1.sanction - formal and explicit approval; "a Democrat usually gets the union's endorsement"
commendation, approval - a message expressing a favorable opinion; "words of approval seldom passed his lips"
O.K., okay, okeh, okey, OK - an endorsement; "they gave us the O.K. to go ahead"
visa - an endorsement made in a passport that allows the bearer to enter the country issuing it
nihil obstat - the phrase used by the official censor of the Roman Catholic Church to say that a publication has been examined and contains nothing offensive to the church
2.sanction - a mechanism of social control for enforcing a society's standards
social control - control exerted (actively or passively) by group action
3.sanction - official permission or approvalsanction - official permission or approval; "authority for the program was renewed several times"
permission - approval to do something; "he asked permission to leave"
4.sanction - the act of final authorization; "it had the sanction of the church"
empowerment, authorisation, authorization - the act of conferring legality or sanction or formal warrant
benefit of clergy - sanction by a religious rite; "they are living together without benefit of clergy"
name - by the sanction or authority of; "halt in the name of the law"
nihil obstat - authoritative approval
Verb1.sanction - give sanction tosanction - give sanction to; "I approve of his educational policies"
authorize, authorise, clear, pass - grant authorization or clearance for; "Clear the manuscript for publication"; "The rock star never authorized this slanderous biography"
sanction - give religious sanction to, such as through on oath; "sanctify the marriage"
visa - approve officially; "The list of speakers must be visaed"
back, endorse, indorse, plump for, plunk for, support - be behind; approve of; "He plumped for the Labor Party"; "I backed Kennedy in 1960"
confirm - support a person for a position; "The Senate confirmed the President's candidate for Secretary of Defense"
2.sanction - give authority or permission to
authorise, empower, authorize - give or delegate power or authority to; "She authorized her assistant to sign the papers"
3.sanction - give religious sanction to, such as through on oath; "sanctify the marriage"
approve, O.K., okay, sanction - give sanction to; "I approve of his educational policies"

sanction

verb
1. permit, back, support, allow, approve, entitle, endorse, authorize, countenance, vouch for, lend your name to He may seem ready to sanction the use of force.
permit refuse, ban, veto, forbid, reject, boycott, disallow
2. punish, discipline, penalize, chastise, bring to book, slap someone's wrist, throw the book at, rap someone's knuckles failure to sanction countries for butchering whales
noun
1. (often plural) ban, restriction, boycott, embargo, exclusion, penalty, deterrent, prohibition, coercive measures He expressed his opposition to lifting the sanctions.
ban authority, licence, approval, permission, authorization, dispensation, approbation
2. permission, backing, support, authority, approval, allowance, confirmation, endorsement, countenance, ratification, authorization, approbation, O.K. or okay (informal), stamp or seal of approval The king could not enact laws without the sanction of parliament.
permission ban, veto, refusal, embargo, prohibition, disapproval, proscription

sanction

noun
1. The approving of an action, especially when done by one in authority:
Informal: OK.
2. An act of confirming officially:
3. A coercive measure intended to ensure compliance or conformity:
verb
1. To give one's consent to:
Informal: OK.
2. To accept officially:
Translations
إقْرار، مُوافَقَهيَسْمَح، يأذَن بِ
schválitsouhlas
godkendegodkendelse
hyväksyntäpakotesäännössanktiosanktioida
sankcija
szentesítszentesítés
leyfa, heimilaleyfi, heimild
sankcijasankcionuoti
atļaujaatļautsankcijasankcionēt
izin vermekresmî izin

sanction

[ˈsæŋkʃən]
A. N
1. (= approval) → permiso m, autorización f
2. (= penalty) → sanción f (esp Pol) sanctionssanciones fpl
to impose economic sanctions on or againstimponer sanciones económicas a or contra
B. VT
1. (= approve, authorize) → sancionar, autorizar
2. (= penalize) → sancionar
C. CPD sanction busting Nruptura f de sanciones

sanction

[ˈsæŋkʃən]
n
(= trade restriction) → sanction f
to impose economic sanctions on a country, to impose economic sanctions against a country → prendre des sanctions économiques contre un pays
(= punishment) → sanction f
a system of rewards and sanctions → un système de récompenses et de sanctions
(= approval) → sanction f
to give sth official sanction → sanctionner qch officiellement
vt
(= approve, allow) [person, government] → sanctionner; [law] → autoriser
He will not sanction the use of force → Il refuse de sanctionner l'usage de la force.
the law which sanctioned the remarriage of widows
BUT la loi qui autorisait les veuves à se remarier.
(= impose sanctions on) → sanctionnersanctions-busting [ˈsæŋkʃənzbʌstɪŋ] nviolation f de sanctions

sanction

n
(= permission, approval)Zustimmung f; to give one’s sanction to somethingetw sanktionieren, seine Zustimmung zu etw geben; rituals which have received the sanction of traditionRituale, die durch die Tradition sanktioniert sind
(= enforcing measure)Sanktion f; to lift the sanctions on a countrydie Sanktionen gegen ein Land aufheben
vt
(Pol: = impose sanctions on) → Sanktionen plverhängen gegen

sanction

[ˈsæŋkʃn]
1. n (gen) → sanzione f
to impose economic sanctions on or against → adottare sanzioni economiche contro
2. vtsancire, sanzionare

sanction

(ˈsӕŋkʃən) noun
permission or approval. The soldier's action did not have the sanction of his commanding officer.
verb
to permit or agree to. We cannot sanction the use of force.

sanction

n. sanción, pena.
References in classic literature ?
Heyward," she said, looking him full in the face with a touching expression of innocence and dependency, "give me the sacred presence and the holy sanction of that parent before you urge me further.
And this man they have made into the high priest of property and smug respectability, a divine sanction of all the horrors and abominations of modern commercial civilization
Granted," said the young man; "but, in my opinion, it is you considerate, humane men, that are responsible for all the brutality and outrage wrought by these wretches; because, if it were not for your sanction and influence, the whole system could not keep foothold for an hour.
Still thinking of the sanction which the Constitution gives to slavery, he says, "Because it was part of the original compact--let it stand.
Prior to his conversion, he relied upon his own depravity to shield and sustain him in his savage barbarity; but after his conversion, he found religious sanction and support for his slaveholding cruelty.
He felt the disappointment of the young man, and was mortified to have been the means of promoting it, by the sanction he had given; and the part which he was persuaded Emma had taken in the affair, was provoking him exceedingly.
I said this almost involuntarily, and, with as little sanction of free will, my tears gushed out.
Mills's sanction and concurrence, I besought a clandestine interview in the back kitchen where the Mangle was.
We shall then have your willing sanction, good Cedric,'' said Prince John, ``to confer this fief upon a person whose dignity will not be diminished by holding land of the British crown.
Their plan was respectfully and thoroughly discussed, but the want of a government and of the sanction of the people to the delegation of powers happily prevailed.
No wonder they are mad, when people who are in their senses sanction their madness
It has been practiced upon in different countries and ages, and has received the sanction of the most approved writers on the subject of politics.