Murine viruses and pathogenic bacteria confound experiments, so there is an emphasis on specific pathogen-flee rodent sources and an active sentinel animal
In the sentinel animal
, serologic test results for BoHV-1 were negative and for BVDV types 1 and 2 were positive at a titer of 512.
In 36 (92%) counties reporting human cases, the first case was preceded by at least one report of a WNV-infected bird, sentinel animal
, horse, or mosquito pool; 320 counties detected enzootic WNV activity but no human infections.
Ongoing surveillance is being conducted at fever hospitals, among persons in high-risk occupational categories, and in sentinel animal
To detect reemerging BTV-8 in Germany, a sentinel animal
program was started in March 2007.
sites are being established to investigate whether the virus has become enzootic in the wildlife.
The program also defines the use of sentinel animals
In 2013, as part of a study of FMDV transmission between wildlife, especially African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), and domestic animals, 20 long-horned Ankole cattle ([approximately equal to] 6 months of age) were introduced as sentinel animals
into Nyakatonzi (Kasese District), in close proximity to the QENP.
3, four sentinel animals
received water and food contaminated with faeces containing VACV.
Having an opportunity to observe animals as sentinel animals
is not only important to Central Mass.
Specimens from ill humans and animals, dead birds, captive sentinel animals
(mostly chickens), wild-caught birds, and mosquitoes were collected by state and local public health departments and other cooperating state and federal agencies and tested for WNV or WNV-specific antibody.
They're sentinel animals
for eastern equine encephalitis in the south-eastern United States.