In the Sonoran and Mojave deserts of California at least 22 plant species are serotinous
species, plants retain their seeds within protective woody fruits or cones in the canopy, delaying seed release until triggered by an environmental stimulus (LeMaitre 1985; Midgley and Enright 1999).
These fires allow a new generation to emerge by exposing mineral soil, increasing sunlight proliferation, and melting the resin of the tree's serotinous
cones (Tackle 1961).
It is usually painful and covers all the body while the serotinous
type is accessed at adulthood and mostly covers head and neck.
1996; Barton and Grenier, 2008), contrasting with even-aged serotinous
jack pine stands whose seedling recruitment is mainly driven by fires in the upper Great Lakes and Canada (Schoenike, 1962; Ganthier et al.
Light black spruce seeds, disseminated from semi - serotinous
cones throughout These old krummholz may persist for centuries until conditions become more favourable, at which time they may increase radial growth rates and initiate sexual reproduction.
In cross SB91925x ICB-1026, the parent SB91925 was more short-legged and serotinous
and it had also more tillers, longer spike, heavier grains per spike, higher thousand grain weight, as well as better harvest index and grain yield per plant.
Populations can quickly reestablish in the wake of a forest fire due to the species' serotinous
cones, or cones coated with a resin that must be melted by fire before opening and releasing the seeds within.
The ecosystem has species adapted to >0% disturbance, such as lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) serotinous
cones that release seeds after fire, and thus complete fire suppression to 0% area burned does not produce a sustainable ecosystem.
Some trees, such as jack pine in the Lake States and Canada and lodgepole pine in much of the west, have developed serotinous
cones, that open and disperse seeds only after exposure to intense heat.
pungens are serotinous
and stand regeneration requires medium to high-intensity fires that release seed, expose mineral soil, and open the forest canopy.
The tree's serotinous
cones are sealed shut by resin and need high temperatures to open and release their seed.