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aux.v. Past tense should (sho͝od)
1. Used before a verb in the infinitive to show:
a. Something that will take place or exist in the future: We shall arrive tomorrow.
b. An order, promise, requirement, or obligation: You shall leave now. He shall answer for his misdeeds. The penalty shall not exceed two years in prison.
c. The will to do something or have something take place: I shall go out if I feel like it.
d. Something that is inevitable: That day shall come.
2. Archaic
a. To be able to.
b. To have to; must.

[Middle English schal, from Old English sceal; see skel- in Indo-European roots.]
Usage Note: The traditional rules for using shall and will prescribe a highly complicated pattern of use in which the meanings of the forms change according to the person of the subject. In the first person, shall is used to indicate simple futurity: I shall (not will) have to buy another ticket. In the second and third persons, the same sense of futurity is expressed by will: The comet will (not shall) return in 87 years. You will (not shall) probably encounter some heavy seas when you round the point. The use of will in the first person and of shall in the second and third may express determination, promise, obligation, or permission, depending on the context. Thus I will leave tomorrow indicates that the speaker is determined to leave; You and she shall leave tomorrow is likely to be interpreted as a command. The sentence You shall have your money expresses a promise ("I will see that you get your money"), whereas You will have your money makes a simple prediction. Such, at least, are the traditional rules. The English and some traditionalists about usage are probably the only people who follow these rules and then not with perfect consistency. In America, people who try to adhere to them run the risk of sounding pretentious or haughty. Americans normally use will to express most of the senses reserved for shall in English usage. Americans use shall chiefly in first person invitations and questions that request an opinion or agreement, such as Shall we go? and in certain fixed expressions, such as We shall overcome. In formal style, Americans use shall to express an explicit obligation, as in Applicants shall provide a proof of residence, though this sense is also expressed by must or should. In speech the distinction that the English signal by the choice of shall or will may be rendered by stressing the auxiliary, as in I will leave tomorrow ("I intend to leave"); by choosing another auxiliary, such as must or have to; or by using an adverb such as certainly. · In addition to its sense of obligation, shall can also convey high moral seriousness that derives in part from its extensive use in the King James Bible, as in "Righteousness shall go before him and shall set us in the way of his steps" (Ps 85:13) and "He that shall humble himself shall be exalted" (Mt 23:12). The prophetic overtones that shall bears with it have no doubt led to its use in some of the loftiest rhetoric in English. This may be why Lincoln chose to use it instead of will in the Gettysburg Address: "government of the people, by the people, for the people shall not perish from the earth." See Usage Note at should.


(ʃæl; unstressed ʃəl)
vb, past should
1. (esp with: I or we as subject) used as an auxiliary to make the future tense: we shall see you tomorrow. Compare will11
a. used as an auxiliary to indicate determination on the part of the speaker, as in issuing a threat: you shall pay for this!.
b. used as an auxiliary to indicate compulsion, now esp in official documents: the Tenant shall return the keys to the Landlord.
c. used as an auxiliary to indicate certainty or inevitability: our day shall come.
3. (with any noun or pronoun as subject, esp in conditional clauses or clauses expressing doubt) used as an auxiliary to indicate nonspecific futurity: I don't think I shall ever see her again; he doubts whether he shall be in tomorrow.
[Old English sceal; related to Old Norse skal, Old High German scal, Dutch zal]
Usage: The usual rule given for the use of shall and will is that where the meaning is one of simple futurity, shall is used for the first person of the verb and will for the second and third: I shall go tomorrow; they will be there now. Where the meaning involves command, obligation, or determination, the positions are reversed: it shall be done; I will definitely go. However, shall has come to be largely neglected in favour of will, which has become the commonest form of the future in all three persons


(ʃæl; unstressed ʃəl)

auxiliary v., pres. shall;
1. plan to or intend to: I shall go later.
2. will have to or is determined to: You shall do it. He shall do it.
3. (in laws, directives, etc.) must; is or are obliged to: Council meetings shall be public.
4. (used interrogatively): Shall we go?
[before 900; Middle English shal, Old English sceal; c. Old Saxon skal, Old High German scal, Old Norse skal; compare Dutch zal, German soll]
usage: The traditional rule of usage says that future time is indicated by shall in the first person (We shall explain) and will in the other persons (You will be there, won't you?). The rule continues that determination is expressed by will in the first person (We will win the battle) and shall in the other persons (They shall not bully us). Whether this rule was ever widely observed is doubtful. Today, will is used overwhelmingly in all persons, in all types of speech and writing, both for the simple future and to express determination. shall has some use in all persons, chiefly in formal contexts, to express determination: I shall return. We shall overcome. shall also occurs in the language of laws and directives: All visitors shall observe posted regulations. See also should.


1. 'shall' and 'will'

Shall and will are used to make statements and ask questions about the future.

Shall and will are not usually pronounced in full after a pronoun. When writing down what someone has said, the contraction 'll is usually used after the pronoun, instead of writing shall or will in full.

He'll come back.
'They'll be late,' he said.

Shall and will have the negative forms shall not and will not. In speech, these are usually shortened to shan't /ʃɑːnt/ and won't /wəʊnt/. Shan't is rather old-fashioned, and is rarely used in American English.

I shan't ever do it again.
You won't need a coat.

It used to be considered correct to write shall after I or we, and will after any other pronoun or noun phrase. Now, most people write will after I and we, and this is not regarded as incorrect, although I shall and we shall are still sometimes used.

I hope some day I will meet you.
We will be able to help.
I shall be out of the office on Monday.

There are a few special cases in which you use shall, rather than 'will':

2. suggestions

You can make a suggestion about what you and someone else should do by asking a question beginning with 'Shall we...?'

Shall we go out for dinner?

You can also suggest what you and someone else should do by using a sentence that begins with 'Let's...' and ends with '...shall we?'

Let's have a cup of tea, shall we?
3. asking for advice

You can use shall I or shall we when you are asking for suggestions or advice.

What shall I give them for dinner?
Where shall we meet?
4. offering

You can say 'Shall I... ?' when you are offering to do something.

Shall I shut the door?

Will also has some special uses:

5. requests

You can use will you to make a request.

Will you take these upstairs for me, please?
Don't tell anyone, will you?
6. invitations

You can also use will you or the negative form won't you to make an invitation. Won't you is very formal and polite.

Will you stay to lunch?
Won't you sit down, Sir?
7. ability

Will is sometimes used to say that someone or something is able to do something.

This will get rid of your headache.
The car won't start.

Be Careful!
You don't normally use 'shall' or 'will' in clauses beginning with words and expressions such as when, before, or as soon as. Instead you use the present simple. Don't say, for example, 'I'll call as soon as I shall get home'. Say 'I'll call as soon as I get home'.

تُسْتَعْمَل على شَكل طَلَبسَوْف
(se usa para expresar el condicional)(se usa para expresar el futuro)(se usa para expresar obligación)deberverbo auxiliar de futuro
ámunskal, ætlarskal, verîur
~일 것이다
komma att
-eceği-ecekecek, acak-elim mi?-melisin


[ʃæl] AUX VB
1. (used to form 1st person in future tense and questions) I shall goyo iré
no I shall not (come); no I shan't (come)no, yo no (vendré or voy a venir)
shall I go now?¿me voy ahora?
let's go in, shall we?¿entramos?
shall we let him?¿se lo permitimos?
shall we hear from you soon?¿te pondrás en contacto pronto?
2. (in commands, emphatic) you shall pay for this!¡me las vas a pagar!
"but I wanted to see him" - "and so you shall"-pero quería verle -y le vas a ver


[ˈʃæl](STRONG) [ʃəl] aux vb
(in future tense)
I shall know more next month → J'en saurai plus le mois prochain.
We shall be landing in Paris in fifteen minutes → Nous atterrirons à Paris dans quinze minutes.
I shan't be long → Je n'en ai pas pour longtemps.
I shall miss him terribly → Il va beaucoup me manquer.
we shall see → on verra, nous verrons
(making suggestions, offers, asking for advice)
Shall I shut the window? → Vous voulez que je ferme la fenêtre?
Shall we ask him to come with us? → Si on lui demandait de venir avec nous?
I'll get some, shall I? → Je vais en acheter, d'accord?
What shall I do? → Qu'est-ce que je dois faire?
(giving orders, rules, instructions)
The Security Council shall decide what measures are to be taken → Le Conseil de sécurité décide des mesures à prendre.
You shall not make this speech → Vous ne ferez pas ce discours.


pret <should>
modal aux vb
(future) I/we shall or I’ll/we’ll go to France this yearich werde/wir werden dieses Jahr nach Frankreich fahren, ich fahre/wir fahren dieses Jahr nach Frankreich; shall do (inf)wird gemacht (inf); no, I shall not or I shan’tnein, das werde ich nicht tun or das tue ich nicht; yes, I shalljawohl, das werde ich tun or das tue ich!
(determination, obligation) you shall pay for this!dafür sollst or wirst du büßen!; but I say you shall do it!aber ich sage dir, du wirst das machen!; the directors shall not be disturbed (form)die Direktoren dürfen nicht gestört werden; the court shall risedas Gericht muss sich erheben; (command) → erheben Sie sich!; thou shalt not kill (Bibl) → du sollst nicht töten; the manufacturer shall deliver … (in contracts etc) → der Hersteller liefert; I want to go too — and so you shallich will auch mitkommen — aber gewiss doch or (in fairy stories) → es sei!
(in questions, suggestions) what shall we do?was sollen wir machen?, was machen wir?; let’s go in, shall we?komm, gehen wir hinein!; shall I go now?soll ich jetzt gehen?; I’ll buy 3, shall I?soll ich 3 kaufen?, ich kaufe 3, oder?


[ʃæl] aux vb
a. (used to form 1st person in future tense and questions) I shall or I'll go tomorrowci andrò domani, ci vado domani
shall I open the door or will you? → devo aprire io la porta o lo fai tu?
shall we hear from you soon? → ci mandera presto sue notizie?
I'll get some, shall I? → ne prendo un po', che ne dici?
let's go out, shall we? → usciamo, vuoi?
b. (in commands, promises, emphatic) you shall pay for this!questa la pagherai!
it shall be done → sarà fatto
but I wanted to see him - and so you shall → ma volevo vederlo! - lo vedrai!


(ʃəl) , (ʃӕl) short forms I'll ~we'll: negative short form shan't (ʃaːnt) verb
1. used to form future tenses of other verbs when the subject is I or we. We shall be leaving tomorrow; I shall have arrived by this time tomorrow.
2. used to show the speaker's intention. I shan't be late tonight.
3. used in questions, the answer to which requires a decision. Shall I tell him, or shan't I?; Shall we go now?
4. used as a form of command. You shall go if I say you must.


سَوْف budu vil werden θα deber, verbo auxiliar de futuro tulla futur biti auxiliary for the future tense (未来を表して)・・・だろう ~일 것이다 zullen nie tłumaczy się na język polski; służy do tworzenia czasu przyszłego ir, verbo usado para exprimir futuro ou obrigatoriedade буду komma att จะ ecek, acak sẽ 将要


v. aux. deber.
References in classic literature ?
The four young faces on which the firelight shone brightened at the cheerful words, but darkened again as Jo said sadly, "We haven't got Father, and shall not have him for a long time.
I'm the oldest," began Meg, but Jo cut in with a decided, "I'm the man of the family now Papa is away, and I shall provide the slippers, for he told me to take special care of Mother while he was gone.
Everyone thought soberly for a minute, then Meg announced, as if the idea was suggested by the sight of her own pretty hands, "I shall give her a nice pair of gloves.
If I can't, I shall fall into a chair and be graceful.
He is well, and thinks he shall get through the cold season better than we feared.
When I get back to my room I shall sleep," she murmured gratefully.
I don't know where I shall go or what I shall do but I am going away.
Something father said makes it sure that I shall have to go away.
All of the components furnished under this contract shall be new and in manufacturer s original packaging.
This association shall be called the NORTH DAKOTA ACADEMY OF SCIENCE.
The Board of Directors shall establish procedures for the creation and operation of standing committees and task force committees as it deems appropriate.
Article 1: The President of the Republic shall engage in inclusive and transparent consultations with all of the constituencies represented in the National Dialogue Conference, immediately following the signing of this Agreement.