Its next execution lasted 48 minutes--half an hour longer than officials expected--after the condemned inmate was first injected with Midazolam, a controversial sedative that many states turned to after the European Union banned exports of sodium thiopental
The drugs used were sodium thiopental
, pancuronium bromide and potassium chloride - the method was developed in the 1970s in Oklahoma.
A year after the Baze decision, the sole manufacturer of sodium thiopental
in the United States stopped producing the drug.
After sodium thiopental
was discontinued by the pharmaceutical manufacturer due to its usage in executions, midazolam became the state's go-to.
Food and Drug Administration ruled against Texas on Thursday, claiming the 1,000 vials of sodium thiopental
the state tried to import in July 2015 could not be admitted into the United States because they appeared to be unapproved and misbranded.
Since its introduction in 1986, propofol (2, 6-diisopropylphenol), a sedative-hypnotic agent chemically distinct from other intravenous induction agents, has been used for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia and"conscious sedation" in greater than 80% of cases, virtually replacing sodium thiopental
and all other short-ac ting barbiturates as induction agents.
These are sodium thiopental
, which depresses the central nervous system in 30 seconds, inducing a degree of unconsciousness that makes pain undetectable; pancuronium bromide, a relaxant which takes 30-45 seconds to induce paralysis and respiratory arrest; and potassium chloride, which stops the heart in around 30 seconds.
Consequently, in December 2011 the European Commission decided to amend the list of goods subject to the export controls to cover sodium thiopental
and similar substances used in lethal injections in countries where the death penalty is still applied.
Anaesthesia was induced with sodium thiopental
followed by succinylcholine for endotracheal intubation.
21) These restrictions forced all European pharmaceutical companies who manufactured sodium thiopental
to pull out of the United States market.
ceased domestic production of sodium thiopental
due to a material supply problem.
Supreme Court approved a three-drug combination of (1) sodium thiopental
, a sedative that induces unconsciousness, (2) pancuronium bromide, a muscle relaxer that induces paralysis, stopping respiration, and (3) potassium chloride, which causes cardiac arrest.