After using a three-drug cocktail of sodium thiopental
, pancuronium bromide and potassium chloride in executions for decades, TDCJ modified its protocol in 2011 when drug manufacturers halted shipments.
As mentioned above, the European Union has implemented measures that regulate the export of drugs commonly associated with lethal injections, such as sodium thiopental
In 2011, the sole manufacturer of sodium thiopental
tried to transfer production of the drug to Europe.
But pentobarbital is considered a controversial substitute for sodium thiopental
because its manufacture is often poorly regulated, and contaminated batches can cause exruciating pain prior to death.
supplier of sodium thiopental
, announced in January 2011 that it would cease the drug's production after Italy--where production was set to move--threatened to block exports if the drug ended up in capital punishment procedures.
But since makers of sodium thiopental
stopped selling it for use in executions.
A British export ban on sodium thiopental
came into force last Friday.
Hospira had already stopped making the anaesthetic, sodium thiopental
, in the USA late last year because of difficulties in obtaining the raw materials.
fleck questions Arizona's rationing priorities; and Ross White questions the practice of lethal injection in the wake of the sodium thiopental
In a move that could delay executions across the United States, Illinois drug firm Hospira said death-penalty opposition overseas was behind its decision to stop producing sodium thiopental
A tiny pharmaceutical company with its head office in the ELgone Driving Academy sold enough sodium thiopental
, pancuronium bromide and potassium chloride to Arizona and California last October to end the lives of 10 death row inmates.
Two month later, the British government in November banned the export of sodium thiopental