Besides general gemination, the Ingrian language is noted for its extension called special gemination (Sovijarvi 1944 : 80-82; Palander 1987; Laanest 1986 : 60-61) that regularly concerns the consonants b, d, c, z, following the primary or secondary stressed syllable if that syllable ends in a long vowel, diphthong or sonorant
The accumulation of two consonants (flowing or sonorant
+ stop) in the end of the first syllable is possible, for instance, [ayt/kan] "the one, who said", [tart/ty] "he dragged".
The most sonorant
and vowel-like consonants (h, w, y) are those that seem most prone to change; A is in a sense the most minimal consonant (Trask 1996: 58) and is as such easily dropped, and more seldom inserted.
Since the sequences in question always cross a syllable boundary, and since an obvious difference between stops and fricatives is the difference in sonority, we may look to the Syllable Contact Law (Murray and Vennemann 1983; Vennemann 1988), which requires an onset consonant to be less sonorant
than a preceding coda consonant, to provide an answer.
In Paradise Lost, Milton associates this voiced, sonorant
, bilabial glide with its alliterative "w" sounds with the fractured, fallen state that all creatures must endure.
The most accurate description of this difference runs as follows: "Overall, the rhythmical character of the first version is marked by the emphasis on and pauses after 'shun' and 'heaven,' whereas the relative lack of pausing and the holding of the reverberations of final consonants so that they flow into the next word makes the second version more even and sonorant
r is voiced and implies the fullness of roundness, resonant-e, and rolling.
Liquid "l," alveolar sonorant
, flowing into bilabial voiced stop "b," and forming eventually into labiodental voiceless spirant "f," the word sounds the rhythm by which the world ceaselessly hums.
One of the most effective vocal devices we have encountered in the readings of other readers is what Gerry Knowles ("Pitch Contours") has called "late peaking," that is, when the intonation peak hits the syllable nucleus later than in the middle or even on the following continuant, usually a sonorant
The protoMari form can be reconstructed as *liwa; in East Mari there has been a change *i > e, the conditioning factor probably being the following sonorant
(Luobbal Sammol Sammol Ante 2014 : 138-139).
In (10a) the first C is an obstruent and in (10b) it is a sonorant
TV are only possible in exceptional cases when the morphological marker -tte is added to a stem that ends in a sonorant