When she had her first two children she was able to give birth while under spinal anaesthetic
In South Africa (SA) there is currently no standard approach to testing the level of a spinal block, nor is there an algorithm on how to manage a spinal anaesthetic
block that is inadequate for surgery.
Proposed Mechanism of Action of Ketamine as a Spinal Anaesthetic
Density of spinal anaesthetic
solutions of bupivacaine, levobupivacaine, and ropivacaine with and without dextrose.
Nationally, in 2013, about 50% of patients underwent a general anaesthetic, 44% underwent a spinal anaesthetic
, and 3% endured both a general and spinal anaesthetic
Seewal et al  suggest that in non-obstetric population receiving spinal anaesthetic
for superficial lower abdominal surgery (hernia repair), addition of 10 |ig Fentanyl to Bupivacaine 0.
A key part of this approach is using a spinal anaesthetic
during the operation which makes you completely numb from the waist down.
At 93 minutes after the spinal anaesthetic
commenced, her systolic blood pressure had decreased to 70 mmHg.
The original focus of my research was to investigate POUR, especially in patients following spinal anaesthetic
, hence the audit is based on this patient group.
Duration of the spinal anaesthetic
block was measured as the time interval from intrathecal injection to when a two-segment regression in the level of block (T4) was detected and documented.
Densities of cerebrospinal fluid and spinal anaesthetic
solutions in surgical patients at body temperature.
Results of our study resembles with the work of BenDavid et al16 , who demonstrated that the use of a minidose bupivacaine plus fentanyl spinal anaesthetic
(4 mg bupivacaine plus 20 mg fentanyl) for surgical hip fracture repair in the elderly provide successful anaesthesia and incurred a minimum of hypotension.