Studies that fulfilled the following a priori eligibility criteria were included if the study a) was an original study; b) was a cross-sectional, or a case-control or a cohort design; c) reported on any one or more of the following outcomes: spontaneous abortion
, stillbirth, preterm delivery, birth weight, and neonatal/infant mortality; and d) presented data on arsenic exposure determined using environmental measures (arsenic in drinking water or airborne arsenic, or arsenic in soil), biomarkers, or indirect measures (e.
To date, rigorous studies evaluating whether treatment with antidepressants during pregnancy increases the risk of spontaneous abortion
have been relatively sparse.
Patients and clinicians can be somewhat reassured by the findings of this study, which indicate that even if there is a risk of increased spontaneous abortion
, it is a very small one, and it appears to be even smaller when factoring in the depression diagnosis.
Neither condition is believed to increase the risk of spontaneous abortion
, therefore providing suitable controls for this part of the study.
The finding suggests that maternal deficiency of one or both trace elements may be associated with the occurrence of spontaneous abortion
, which opens new and interesting lines of research in this area so far unexplored.
About 50 percent of the cases also result in spontaneous abortion
past the first trimester.
Unintended pregnancies are defined as those that ended in an unplanned birth, an induced abortion or a spontaneous abortion
(if the pregnancy was not planned); similarly, intended pregnancies are those that ended in a planned birth or in a spontaneous abortion
(if the pregnancy was planned).
Some research indicates that the association between NSAIDs and spontaneous abortion
might be a result of using the drug to relieve cramping, which can be a precursor to pregnancy loss.
Finally, among the 10 pregnancies (10 women) with no history of anti-TNF use (cohort III), there were zero terminations and one spontaneous abortion
All of these associated factors have been shown to increase the risk of poor pregnancy outcomes, including spontaneous abortion
, stillbirth, preterm delivery, and, in some cases, SIDS.
About 15 to 20% of pregnancies end in spontaneous abortion
, mostly in the first trimester, the most frequent cause being chromosomal abnormalities, with a prevalence of approximately 50% in spontaneous abortions
Adverse pregnancy outcomes such as excess spontaneous abortion
, still birth and neonatal death rates among women with chronic arsenic exposure were first reported in Bangladesh in 2001 .