The natural luminosity provides high stomatic density with functional stomata
, favoring the plant adaptation to heterotrophic conditions (Araujo et al.
Length and width measurements of stomata
in the upper and lower surfaces of leaves were made and the mean and standard devition values of stomata
A variety of characters like epidermal cells, subsidiary cells, guard cells, trichomes, macro-hairs, micro-hairs and stomata
were used as a tool for the taxonomic grouping of different species.
Stomatal index calculation was performed according to the formula Stomatal index (SI) = NE/(EC + NE) * 100, where NE is the number of stomata
and EC the number of epidermal cells.
types including anisocytic, actinocytic and anomocytic have been found in the family.
The present studies on the plants growing in loco area indicate that auto exhaust pollution brought appreciable changes in the number of epidermal cells and stomata
per unit area.
The microscopic characteristics analysed in upper and abaxial epidermis were: epidermal cells length and width (CLUE, CWUE, CLAE, CWAE); stomata
cells length and width (SLUE, SWUE, SLAE, SWAE); stomata
number per area unit (considering units of 19.
In addition, plants close their stomata
and prevent further loss of interior moisture.
According to long-term measurements at many forest locations in the northern hemisphere, stomata
on leaf surfaces react to more carbon dioxide, which is an example of the strategies of ecosystems to cope with changes.
Micromorphological structures of plant leaf surfaces, such as trichomes, epicuticular waxes and stomata
, can be observed in detail through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and often provide additional taxonomic information (Eglinton and Hamilton, 1967; Engel and Barthlott, 1988; Haron and Moore, 1996; Neinhuis and Barthlott, 1997; Stockey and Frevel, 1997).
2007), such as low regulation mechanism of water loss, mainly due to inefficient stomata
functionality and the formation of epicuticular wax and reduced development of photosynthetic tissues (LAMHANEDI et al.
can be open or closed, and act like little windows into the Leaf.