This has given rise to conflicting and mutually exclusive philosophical claims of the objective reality, ranging from positivist and subjective idealism
to the realist views of a deterministic, unchanging and a permanent objective reality, to a mechanistic measurement problem as expressed by the Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, But however much wildly differing interpretations of the quantum phenomena are, the rationalist notion of a certain, deterministic and inherently unchanging reality (knowable or not) as the basis of epistemology is widely accepted.
The remaining four essays focus on the subjective idealism
of Berkeley, the transcendental idealism of Kant, and German idealism after Kant.
He discusses the historical antecedents of the work, the critique subjective idealism
, the attack of substratum-metaphysics, the critique of the scientific world view, and moving from substance to subject.
The development of empiricism as a school of thought implied still deeper degrees of subjective idealism
Fleetwood charts a kind of Hayekian intellectual odyssey by which this conclusion was reached: first, by more or less orthodox positivism, then by a kind of subjective idealism
(or hermeneutic foundationalism), and finally by the use of a quasi-transformational realism (the reader will have to get used to the author's use of complex, but by no means dispensable, jargon).
The nucleus, unlike the other layers, has no mythical associations, and it teaches a straightforward subjective idealism
and a spiritual monism.
Hegel's account of perception and mental content introduces the threat of subjective idealism
The first pole is subjective idealism
, which claims that all knowledge is radically immanent, with no real connection to the "real" world.
By means of the challenges of the third man and worst difficulty arguments, Parmenides teaches Socrates to navigate between the Skylla and Charibidis, respectively, of materialism and of subjective idealism
, in searching for the truth of the Forms.