LNG-fuelled ships have reduced emissions (nitrogen oxide, sulphur oxide
and particulate matter) as compared with heavy bunker oil and even low-sulphur marine diesel.
Long and short term challenges were quickly identified, chief amongst them being the rapid replacement of the major equipment that had been damaged and the sourcing of low sulphur cracker feedstock and a special sulphur oxide
compound removal catalyst which, in combination, would allow the refinery to operate without the WGS while repairs were made.
Annex VI of the Marpol Convention (in force since 19 May 2005) regulates emissions from ships of nitrogen oxide (NOx), sulphur oxide
(SOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), heavy metals and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).
In addition, nitrogen oxide and sulphur oxide
emissions will also be reduced (up to 40% less nitrogen oxides and 10ppm sulphur oxides
compared with 600ppm of conventional Jet-Al-fuel) due to the very low nitrogen and sulphur content of the biofuel compared to fossil fuel.
The study concluded that Heritage's "performance additive calcium carbonate (HM10 series) demonstrates ability to significantly reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gases and regional air pollutants (nitrogen oxide, sulphur oxide
, and particulates).
10561, as amended] came into force in May 2005, setting limits to sulphur oxide
and nitrogen oxide emissions from ships.
The system is designed to clean the sulphur oxide
(SO2) and particulates from the exhaust gas.
The environmental work carried out on the 600 MW units will considerably reduce nitrous oxide (NOx) and sulphur oxide
When operating in gas mode the sulphur oxide
(SOx) and particle emissions from the WArtsilA DF engines are negligible at almost zero percent.
Through running on LNG, the Wes Amelie will drastically reduce emissions of sulphur oxide
by over 99%, nitrogen oxide by approximately 90%, and carbon dioxide by up to 20%.
For instance, just five large combustion plants were collectively responsible for more than 20% of all E-PRTR sulphur oxide
emissions to air in 2007.
It is anticipated that further reductions of up to 15 per cent can be achieved, with a similar lowering of nitrogen oxide (NOx) and sulphur oxide
(SOx) exhaust emissions.