Risk was estimated by evaluating consumption of Uroleucon aphids by lady beetles in no-choice laboratory tests, and by determining incidence of non-native lady beetles within naturally occurring patches of goldenrod and giant sumpweed (Cyclachaena xanthifolia (Nutt.
ambrosiae (Thomas) on giant sumpweed (Cyclachaena xanthifolia [Nutt.
In feasting deposits at Cahokia in southern Illinois, for example, Pauketat and his colleagues found evidence of corn, bottle gourd, squash, sunflower, sumpweed
, chenopod, maygrass, erect knotweed, four varieties of nuts, grape, and many fruits (persimmon, strawberry, plum, bramble, elderberry, nightshade, blackhaw, mulberry, sunflower), along with greens and small grains amaranth, purslane, panicoid grasses, carpetweed, and spurges).
In a similar vein, Dee Anne Wymer summarizes paleoethnobotanical evidence from ten Woodland sites in the study area that span a temporal range of 2,000 years, documenting the shift from Early Woodland garden production of Eastern Agricultural Complex plants (maygrass, goosefoot, erect knotweed, little barley, sumpweed
, and sunflower) to Late Woodland maize-based field agriculture.
Dominant forbs included Mexican hat (Ratibida columnaris), western ragweed (Ambrosia psilostachya), sumpweed
(Iva annua), loosestrife (Lythrium californicum), and clay violet (Ruellia nudiflora).