syllogism


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syl·lo·gism

 (sĭl′ə-jĭz′əm)
n.
1. Logic A form of deductive reasoning consisting of a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion; for example, All humans are mortal, the major premise, I am a human, the minor premise, therefore, I am mortal, the conclusion.
2. Reasoning from the general to the specific; deduction.
3. A subtle or specious piece of reasoning.

[Middle English silogisme, from Old French, from Latin syllogismus, from Greek sullogismos, from sullogizesthai, to infer : sun-, syn- + logizesthai, to count, reckon (from logos, reason; see leg- in Indo-European roots).]

syllogism

(ˈsɪləˌdʒɪzəm)
n
1. (Logic) a deductive inference consisting of two premises and a conclusion, all of which are categorial propositions. The subject of the conclusion is the minor term and its predicate the major term; the middle term occurs in both premises but not the conclusion. There are 256 such arguments but only 24 are valid. Some men are mortal; some men are angelic; so some mortals are angelic is invalid, while some temples are in ruins; all ruins are fascinating; so some temples are fascinating is valid. Here fascinating, in ruins, and temples are respectively major, middle, and minor terms
2. (Logic) a deductive inference of certain other forms with two premises, such as the hypothetical syllogism,if P then Q; if Q then R; so if P then R
3. (Logic) a piece of deductive reasoning from the general to the particular
4. (Logic) a subtle or deceptive piece of reasoning
[C14: via Latin from Greek sullogismos, from sullogizesthai to reckon together, from sul- syn- + logizesthai to calculate, from logos a discourse]

syl•lo•gism

(ˈsɪl əˌdʒɪz əm)

n.
1. an argument of a form containing a major premise and a minor premise connected with a middle term and a conclusion, as “All A is C; all B is A; therefore, all B is C.”
2. deductive reasoning.
3. an extremely subtle, sophisticated, or deceptive argument.
[1350–1400; Middle English silogime < Old French < Latin syllogismus < Greek syllogismós=syllog- (see syllogize) + -ismos -ism]
syl`lo•gis′tic, syl`lo•gis′ti•cal, adj.
syl`lo•gis′ti•cal•ly, adv.

syllogism

a form of reasoning in which two propositions or premises are stated and a logical conclusion is drawn from them. Each premise has the subject-predicate form, and each shares a common element called the middle term.
See also: Logic
a form of reasoning in which two statements are made and a logical conclusion is drawn from them. See also logic. — syllogistic, adj.
See also: Argumentation
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Noun1.syllogism - deductive reasoning in which a conclusion is derived from two premises
deductive reasoning, synthesis, deduction - reasoning from the general to the particular (or from cause to effect)
ratiocination, conclusion - the proposition arrived at by logical reasoning (such as the proposition that must follow from the major and minor premises of a syllogism)
major premise, major premiss - the premise of a syllogism that contains the major term (which is the predicate of the conclusion)
minor premise, minor premiss, subsumption - the premise of a syllogism that contains the minor term (which is the subject of the conclusion)
Translations
sylogismus
syllogisme
syllogism

syllogism

[ˈsɪlədʒɪzəm] Nsilogismo m

syllogism

nSyllogismus m

syllogism

[ˈsɪləˌdʒɪzm] nsillogismo
References in classic literature ?
She reflected; and with her acute memory for the letter of Angel Clare's remarks, even when she did not comprehend their spirit, she recalled a merciless polemical syllogism that she had heard him use when, as it occasionally happened, he indulged in a species of thinking aloud with her at his side.
From that premise the school of tulip-fanciers, the most exclusive of all schools, worked out the following syllogism in the same year: --
basic of logic is the syllogism, consisting of a major and a minor
 This may be called the syllogism arithmetical, in which, by
Never had he heard such jargon of scholastic philosophy, such fine-drawn distinctions, such cross-fire of major and minor, proposition, syllogism, attack and refutation.
This was a false syllogism, that conclusion had no connection with the premise, while that next premise was an impostor because it had cunningly hidden in it the conclusion that was being attempted to be proved.
But he does not bind up truth in logical formulae,-- logic is still veiled in metaphysics; and the science which he imagines to "contemplate all truth and all existence" is very unlike the doctrine of the syllogism which Aristotle claims to have discovered.
And so the poor child, with her soul's hunger and her illusions of self-flattery, began to nibble at this thick-rinded fruit of the tree of knowledge, filling her vacant hours with Latin, geometry, and the forms of the syllogism, and feeling a gleam of triumph now and then that her understanding was quite equal to these peculiarly masculine studies.
But, on examination, I found that, as for logic, its syllogisms and the majority of its other precepts are of avail- rather in the communication of what we already know, or even as the art of Lully, in speaking without judgment of things of which we are ignorant, than in the investigation of the unknown; and although this science contains indeed a number of correct and very excellent precepts, there are, nevertheless, so many others, and these either injurious or superfluous, mingled with the former, that it is almost quite as difficult to effect a severance of the true from the false as it is to extract a Diana or a Minerva from a rough block of marble.
But those who have their wives and children in common will not say so, but all will say so, though not as individuals; therefore, to use the word all is evidently a fallacious mode of speech; for this word is sometimes used distributively, and sometimes collectively, on account of its double meaning, and is the cause of inconclusive syllogisms in reasoning.
Or he may see intellectual spectres and phantoms that are cosmic and logical and that take the forms of syllogisms.
That is touching another great and much disputed question," exclaimed the Doctor, who seized upon every distinct idea that the ardent and somewhat dogmatic old man left exposed to his mental grasp, with the vain hope of inducing a logical discussion, in which he might bring his battery of syllogisms to annihilate the unscientific defences of his antagonist.