than


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than

 (thăn, thən)
conj.
1. Used after a comparative adjective or adverb to introduce the second element or clause of an unequal comparison: She is a better athlete than I.
2. Used to introduce the second element after certain words indicating difference: He draws quite differently than she does.
3. When. Used especially after hardly and scarcely: I had scarcely walked in the door than the commotion started.
prep. Usage Problem
In comparison or contrast with: could run faster than him; outclassed everyone other than her.

[Middle English, from Old English thanne, than; see to- in Indo-European roots.]
Usage Note: Since the 1700s, grammarians have insisted that than should be regarded as a conjunction in all its uses, so that a sentence such as Bill is taller than Tom should be construed as an elliptical version of the sentence Bill is taller than Tom is. According to this view, the case of a pronoun following than is determined by whether the pronoun serves as the subject or object of the verb that is "understood." Thus, the standard rule requires Pat is taller than I (not me) on the assumption that this sentence is elliptical for Pat is taller than I am. But the rule allows The news surprised Pat more than me, because this sentence is taken as elliptical for The news surprised Pat more than it surprised me. But this analysis is somewhat contrived. Than is quite commonly treated as a preposition when followed by an isolated noun phrase, and it often occurs with a pronoun in the objective case: John is taller than me. In such sentences using the nominative case (than I) can sound unnatural and even pretentious, and objecting to the objective case of the pronoun may sound pedantic. · In comparisons using than and as, the second element should be phrased to parallel the first, and faulty parallelism can arise especially when prepositional phrases are involved. In the sentence They felt that the condition of the new buildings was not much better than the old ones, the condition of the new buildings is compared with the old buildings themselves, not with their condition. The pronoun that must be added to balance the noun condition. The noun can be repeated instead, but in either case the prepositional phrase with of must follow: They felt that the condition of the new buildings was not much better than that (or than the condition) of the old ones. Similar parallelism should follow as: I want the photos in our brochure to look as impressive as those in their brochure (not I want the photos in our brochure to look as impressive as their brochure). · Than and as comparisons pose additional problems when the noun following than or as is the subject or object of an implied clause. Does the sentence The employees are more suspicious of the arbitrator than the owner mean that the employees distrust the arbitrator more than they distrust the owner or that the employees distrust the arbitrator more than the owner does? To clarify this, a verb must be added to the second element of the comparison: The employees are more suspicious of the arbitrator than they are of the owner or The employees are more suspicious of the arbitrator than the owner is. See Usage Note at as1.

than

(ðæn; unstressed ðən)
conj, prep (coordinating)
1. used to introduce the second element of a comparison, the first element of which expresses difference: shorter than you; couldn't do otherwise than love him; he swims faster than I run.
2. used after adverbs such as rather or sooner to introduce a rejected alternative in an expression of preference: rather than be imprisoned, I shall die.
3. other than besides; in addition to
[Old English thanne; related to Old Saxon, Old High German thanna; see then]
Usage: In formal English, than is usually regarded as a conjunction governing an unexpressed verb: he does it far better than I (do). The case of any pronoun therefore depends on whether it is the subject or object of the unexpressed verb: she likes him more than I (like him); she likes him more than (she likes) me. However in ordinary speech and writing than is usually treated as a preposition and is followed by the object form of a pronoun: my brother is younger than me

than

(ðæn, ðɛn; unstressed ðən, ən)

conj.
1. (used after comparative adjectives and adverbs and certain other words, such as other, otherwise, else, etc., to introduce the second member of a comparison): She's taller than I am.
2. (used after some adverbs and adjectives expressing choice or diversity, such as other, otherwise, else, anywhere, different, etc., to introduce an alternative or denote a difference in kind, place, style, identity, etc.): I had no choice other than that.
3. when: We barely arrived than it was time to leave.
prep.
4. in relation to; by comparison with: He is taller than his father.
[before 900; Middle English, Old English than(ne) than, then, when, orig. variant of thonne then]
usage: Whether than is to be followed by the objective or subjective case of a pronoun is much discussed in usage guides. When, as a conjunction, than introduces a subordinate clause, the case of any pronouns following than is determined by their function in that clause: He is younger than I am. I like her better than I like him. When than is followed only by a pronoun or pronouns, with no verb expressed, the usual advice for determining the case is to form a clause mentally after than to see whether the pronoun would be a subject or an object. Thus, the sentences He was more upset than I and She gave him more sympathy than I are to be understood, respectively, as He was more upset than I was and She gave him more sympathy than I gave him. This method is generally employed in formal speech and writing. In informal speech and writing than is usu. treated like a preposition and followed by the objective case of the pronoun: He is younger than me. See also but1, different, me.

than

1. 'than' used with comparatives

Than is mainly used after comparative adjectives and adverbs.

I am happier than I have ever been.
They had to work harder than expected.

If you use a personal pronoun on its own after than, it must be an object pronoun such as me or him.

My brother is younger than me.
Lamin was shorter than her.

However, if the pronoun is the subject of a clause, you use a subject pronoun.

They knew my past much better than she did.
He's taller than I am.
2. 'than ever'

You can also use ever or ever before after than. For example, if you say that something is 'bigger than ever' or 'bigger than ever before', you are emphasizing that it has never been as big as it is now, although it has always been big.

Bill worked harder than ever.
He was now managing a bigger team than ever before.

Be Careful!
Don't use 'than' when you are making comparisons using not as or not so. Don't say, for example, 'He is not as tall than his sister'. You say 'He is not as tall as his sister'.

3. 'more than'

You use more than to say that the number of people or things in a group is greater than a particular number.

We live in a city of more than a million people.
There are more than two hundred and fifty species of shark.
See more

You can also use more than in front of some adjectives as a way of emphasizing them. For example, instead of saying 'If you can come, I shall be very pleased', you can say 'If you can come, I shall be more than pleased'. This is a fairly formal use.

I am more than satisfied with my achievements in Australia.
You would be more than welcome.
4. 'rather than'

You use rather than when you want to compare something that is the case with something that is not.

The company's offices are in London rather than in Nottingham.
She was angry rather than afraid.
See rather
Translations
أكْثَر مِنمِنْ
než
end
ol
kuin
od
mint
heldur en, en
・・・よりも
...보다
quam
nei
nekāpar
cadecat
än
เกินกว่า
daha-den/dan
hơn

than

[ðæn] CONJ
1. (in comparisons) → que
I have more than youtengo más que usted
nobody is more sorry than I (am)nadie lo siente más que yo
more often than noten la mayoría de los casos
they have more money than we havetienen más dinero que nosotros
the car went faster than we had expectedel coche alcanzó una velocidad mayor de lo que habíamos esperado
it is better to phone than to writemás vale llamar por teléfono que escribir
2. (with numerals) → de
more/less than 90más/menos de 90
more than oncemás de una vez
3. (stating preference) → antes que
rather you than meantes que yo

than

[ˈðæn](STRONG) [ðən] conj
(in comparisons)que
She's taller than me → Elle est plus grande que moi.
I've got more books than him → J'ai plus de livres que lui.
I have more than you → J'en ai plus que toi.
I have less than you → J'en ai moins que toi.
She has more apples than pears → Elle a plus de pommes que de poires.
(with numerals)de
more than ten years → plus de dix ans
more than once → plus d'une fois
(stating preferences)plutôt que de
I would sooner give up sleep than miss my evening class → Je préférerais perdre des heures de sommeil plutôt que de rater mon cours du soir.
It is better to phone than to write
BUT Il vaut mieux téléphoner qu'écrire.Il vaut mieux téléphoner plutôt que d'écrire.
(= when) no sooner ... than ... → à peine ... que ...
No sooner had he left than the phone rang → À peine était-il parti que le téléphone sonna.

than

[, (weak form)]
conjals; I’d rather do anything than thatdas wäre das Letzte, was ich tun wollte; no sooner had I sat down than he began to talkkaum hatte ich mich hingesetzt, als er auch schon anfing zu reden; who better to help us than he?wer könnte uns besser helfen als er? ? more, other ADJ c, rather

than

[ðæn; weak form ðən] conjche; (with numerals, pronouns, proper names) → di
you have more than me/Mary/ten → ne hai più di me/Mary/dieci
she has more apples than pears → ha più mele che pere
more than ever → più che mai
she is older than you think → è più vecchia di quanto tu (non) creda
it was a better play than we expected → la commedia è stata migliore di quanto (non) pensassimo
they have more money than we have → hanno più soldi di noi
it is better to phone than to write → è meglio telefonare che scrivere
more/less than 90 → più/meno di 90
more than once → più di una volta
more often than not → il più delle volte
I'd die rather than admit I'm wrong → piuttosto che ammettere di aver torto morirei
no sooner did he leave than the phone rang → non appena uscì il telefono suonò
you know her better than I do → la conosci meglio di me or di quanto non la conosca io

than

(ðən) , (ðӕn) conjunction, preposition
a word used in comparisons. It is easier than I thought; I sing better than he does; He sings better than me.

than

مِنْ než end als από que kuin que od che ・・・よりも ...보다 dan enn niż do que чем än เกินกว่า daha hơn

than

conj. que;
comp. que.