are loyal, the nation is alert, the retainers drunk with wine act as I desire.
In Chapter 2, Williams closely examines the contemporary written evidence to determine the place of stallers and thegns
within Anglo-Saxon society.
The king's thegns
were told to divide this half into four parts, the first of which would support the poor and needy of any race who came to him.
Both could be, and were, handed out by a grateful king to his faithful thegns
as an act of formal (and calculated) generosity.
Here is every man true to one another, mild in his heart, loyal to his lord; the thegns
are united, the people are all prepared.
The small number of surviving manuscripts might seem to argue against any widespread circulation of texts, but Pratt provides counter arguments for the effectiveness of Alfred's campaign to improve the literacy of his ealdorman and thegns
as well as his bishops.
Said papers cover everything from strange castles and prehistoric landscapes in Somerset to the trail of the hunter-gatherers in southwestern England, physical expressions of Church customs in early medieval Britain, loose thegns
in Wessex, canons in France, Angevin lordship and colonial Romanesque in Ireland, the small locus of a bishop, an aristocratic mausoleum at a French abbey, nakedness and drunkenness at Tong Castle, crises in archeological communications, proof that not all archeology is rubbish in three artifacts and commentary on what we really see in past landscapes.
The 'backbone' of the new army was the class of thegns
, who were given lands in return for their military service.
It is likely that he was one of the many Anglo-Saxon thegns
whose land was taken from them by the Normans.
There were a few minor rumblings among some of the other Earls and Thegns
, the nobles of the realm.
A case in point in his research is the transfer of landed property between a king and his thegns
He replaced over four thousand English thegns
(holders of royal land) with only 200 Normans.