Soil samples are often found not to attain thermodynamic equilibrium
in pressure plate extractors (Gee et al.
The concentration at both sides of the boundary between the particle and the matrix equate to the thermodynamic equilibrium
g], since the glass is then close to thermodynamic equilibrium
Under conditions of thermodynamic equilibrium
, the quantitative methods of analysis we describe below are applicable.
It consists of an informed but nonmathematical exploration of a group of related scientific disciplines whose common theme is that, in certain complex physical systems which are both far from thermodynamic equilibrium
and open to an environment with which they exchange energy, local eddies of order "self-organize.
Just where that energy came from and whether it will eventually dissipate to thermodynamic equilibrium
is still being debated by the cosmologists.
To model the thermodynamic equilibrium
the DECHEMA - UNIFAC model was used and for the mass transfer the AIChE model.
Models for both types of furnaces are based on material balances with the fundamental assumptions that the constituents of the furnace atmosphere are always in thermodynamic equilibrium
, and the carbon potential at the surface of the work load is proportional to the difference between the carbon potential of the furnace atmosphere and the instantaneous surface carbon content of the work load.
If the clouds maintain thermodynamic equilibrium
with their surroundings at the lower temperature inferred from the new data, the material must concentrate in thin sheet, Smith says.
Her work resulted in confirmation that dust condensation around Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars follows the predicted thermodynamic equilibrium
Whiletremendous progresses have been made over the past decades in thermodynamic equilibrium
, nonequilibriummany-body quantum physics is still in its infancy.
58] and "Ifthe correction for departure from thermodynamic equilibrium
should be wholly disregarded, the calculated abundance ofhydrogen--already very great--would be increased thirty fold" [10, p.