these


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these

 (thēz)
pron. & adj.
Plural of this.

[Middle English, from Old English thæs, variant of thās, pl. of thes, this, this; see to- in Indo-European roots.]

these

(ðiːz)
determiner
a. the form of this used before a plural noun: these men.
b. (as pronoun): I don't much care for these.

this

(ðɪs)

pron.andadj., pl. these (tēz);
adv. pron.
1. (used to indicate a person, thing, idea, or event as present, near, just mentioned, or by way of emphasis): This is my coat.
2. (used to indicate one of two or more persons, things, etc., referring to the one nearer in place, time, or thought; opposed to that): This is Liza and that is Amy.
3. (used to indicate one of two or more persons, things, etc., implying a contrast; opposed to that): Do this, not that.
4. what is about to follow: Watch this!
adj.
5. (used to indicate a person, place, thing, or degree as present, near, or characteristic): This book is mine.
6. (used to indicate the nearer in time, place, or thought of two persons, things, etc.; opposed to that).
7. (used to imply mere contradistinction; opposed to that).
8. (used in place of an indefinite article for emphasis): I heard this funny noise.
adv.
9. (used with adjectives and adverbs of quantity or extent) to the extent indicated: this far.
Idioms:
with this, hereupon: With this, he wept.
[before 900; (pronoun, adj.) Middle English]

this

these

This and these are used in different ways when you are referring to people, things, situations, events, or periods of time. They can both be determiners or pronouns. These is the plural form of this.

1. referring back

You can use this or these to refer to people, things, or events that have just been mentioned.

He's from the Institute of English Language in Bangkok. This institute has been set up to serve language teachers in the area.
Tax increases may be needed next year to do this.
These particular students are extremely bright.

Don't use 'this' as a pronoun to refer to a person who has just been mentioned. Instead you use he or she.

He was known to everyone as Eddie.
'Bye,' Mary said as she drove away.

In conversation, many people use this and these as determiners even when they are mentioning people or things for the first time.

Then this guy came to the door of the class and he said, 'Mary, you're wanted out here in the hall.'
At school we had to wear these awful white cotton hats.
2. closeness

You can use this or these to refer to people or things that are very near to you. For example, if you are holding a book, you refer to it as 'this book'.

The colonel handed him the bag. 'This is for you,' he said.
Get these kids out of here.

'This' is not usually used as a pronoun to refer to a person. You only use it when you are identifying someone or asking them about their identity. For example, you use this when you are introducing someone. Note that when you are introducing more than one person, you use this, not 'these'.

This is Bernadette, Mr Zapp.
This is my brother Andrew and his wife Claire.

You also use this to say who you are when you phone someone.

Sally? This is Martin Brody.
3. present situations

You can use this to refer to a situation that exists now or to an event that is happening now.

You know a lot about this situation.
4. 'this' and 'these' in time expressions

This is used in the following ways in time expressions:

You use it with morning, afternoon, or evening to refer to the morning, afternoon, or evening of the present day.

I was here this afternoon. Have you forgotten?

However, don't say 'this day'. You say today.

I had a letter today from my solicitor.

Also, don't say 'this night'. You refer to the previous night as last night. You refer to the night of the present day as tonight.

We left our bedroom window open last night.
I think I'll go to bed early tonight.

This week, month, or year means the present week, month, or year.

They're talking about going on strike this week.

You usually use this with weekend or with the name of a day, month, or season to refer to the next weekend or to the next day, month, or season with that name.

Come down there with me this weekend.
Let's fix a time. This Sunday. Four o'clock.

However, you can also use this with one of these words to refer to the previous weekend, or the previous day, month, or season with that name.

This summer they spent £15 million on emergency shelters for the homeless.

These days means 'at the present time'.

The prices these days are absolutely ridiculous.
5. 'that' and 'those'

That and those are used in some similar ways to this and these.

Translations
titotyto
disse
nämä
oviteti
このこれらこれらの
이것들이것들의
títo
de härdessa
เหล่านี้คนหรือสิ่งเหล่านี้
nàynhững cái này

these

[ðiːz]
A. DEM ADJéstos/éstas
it's not these chocolates but those ones I likeno son estos bombones los que me gustan sino aquéllos
these ones over hereéstos/éstas de aquí, éstos/éstas que están aquí
how are you getting on these days?¿cómo le va últimamente?
B. DEM PRONéstos/éstas
I'm looking for some sandals. can I try these?quiero unas sandalias. ¿puedo probarme éstas?
what are these?¿qué son éstos?
these are my friends/my bookséstos son mis amigos/mis libros
I prefer these to thoseprefiero éstos a aquéllos

these

adj, prondiese ? this

these

[ðiːz] (this (pl of))
1. dem adjquesti/e; (as opposed to "those") → questi/e (qui)
these ones over here → questi qui
how are you getting on these days? → come ti va di questi tempi?
2. dem pronquesti/e

these

هَؤُلَاءِ tito, tyto disse diese αυτοί, τούτοι esos, ésos, estos nämä ces, ceux-ci, ceux-là ovi, te, ti questi この, これら, これらの 이것들, 이것들의 deze disse, te, to este, estes, estes эти de här, dessa เหล่านี้, คนหรือสิ่งเหล่านี้ bunlar, bunların, şunlar này, những cái này 这些