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pron. pl. these (thēz)
a. Used to refer to the person or thing present, nearby, or just mentioned: This is my cat. These are my tools.
b. Used to refer to what is about to be said: Now don't laugh when you hear this.
c. Used to refer to the present event, action, or time: said he'd be back before this.
2. Used to indicate the nearer or the more immediate one: This is mine and that is yours.
adj. pl. these
1. Being just mentioned or present in space, time, or thought: She left early this morning.
2. Being nearer or more immediate: this side and that side.
3. Being about to be stated or described: Just wait till you hear this story.
4. Informal Used as a substitute for the indefinite article: looking for this book of recipes.
To this extent; so: never stayed out this late.

[Middle English, from Old English; see to- in the Appendix of Indo-European roots.]
Usage Note: This and that are both used as demonstrative pronouns to refer to a thought expressed earlier: The letter was unopened; that (or this) in itself casts doubt on the inspector's theory. That is sometimes viewed as the better choice in referring to what has gone before (as in the preceding example). When the referent is yet to be mentioned, only this is used: This (not that) is what bothers me: we have no time to consider late applications. · This is often used in speech and informal writing as a substitute for the indefinite article to refer to a specific thing or person: You should talk to this friend of mine at the Department of Motor Vehicles. I have this terrible feeling that I forgot to turn off the gas. It is best to avoid this substitution in formal writing except when a conversational tone is desired. See Usage Note at that.


determiner (used before a singular noun)
a. used preceding a noun referring to something or someone that is closer: distinct from that: this dress is cheaper than that one; look at this picture.
b. (as pronoun): this is Mary and that is her boyfriend; take this.
a. used preceding a noun that has just been mentioned or is understood: this plan of yours won't work.
b. (as pronoun): I first saw this on Sunday.
a. used to refer to something about to be said, read, etc: consider this argument.
b. (as pronoun): listen to this.
a. the present or immediate: this time you'll know better.
b. (as pronoun): before this, I was mistaken.
5. informal often used in storytelling, an emphatic form of a1, the1: I saw this big brown bear.
6. this and that various unspecified and trivial actions, matters, objects, etc
7. this here not standard US an emphatic form of this1, this2, this3
8. with this at this after this; thereupon
used with adjectives and adverbs to specify a precise degree that is about to be mentioned: go just this fast and you'll be safe.
[Old English thēs, thēos, this (masculine, feminine, neuter singular); related to Old Saxon thit, Old High German diz, Old Norse thessi]



pron.andadj., pl. these (tēz);
adv. pron.
1. (used to indicate a person, thing, idea, or event as present, near, just mentioned, or by way of emphasis): This is my coat.
2. (used to indicate one of two or more persons, things, etc., referring to the one nearer in place, time, or thought; opposed to that): This is Liza and that is Amy.
3. (used to indicate one of two or more persons, things, etc., implying a contrast; opposed to that): Do this, not that.
4. what is about to follow: Watch this!
5. (used to indicate a person, place, thing, or degree as present, near, or characteristic): This book is mine.
6. (used to indicate the nearer in time, place, or thought of two persons, things, etc.; opposed to that).
7. (used to imply mere contradistinction; opposed to that).
8. (used in place of an indefinite article for emphasis): I heard this funny noise.
9. (used with adjectives and adverbs of quantity or extent) to the extent indicated: this far.
with this, hereupon: With this, he wept.
[before 900; (pronoun, adj.) Middle English]



This and that are determiners or pronouns. The plural form of this is these. The plural form of that is those.

See this - these, that - those

This entry deals with the similarities and differences between the ways in which these words are used.

1. referring back

This, these, that, and those are all used for referring to people, things, or events that have already been mentioned. It is more common to use this and these than that and those.

New machines are more expensive and this is something one has to consider.
So, for all these reasons, my advice is to be very, very careful.

You use that or those when you are referring to something for the second time in a sentence, using the same noun.

I know that what I say to a person is seldom what that person hears.
Students suggest books for the library, and normally we're quite happy to get those books.

You usually use that, rather than 'this', to refer to a statement that someone has just made.

'She was terribly afraid of offending anyone.' – 'That's right.'
'That's a good point,' he said in response to my question.
2. present and past

You can use this or that to talk about events or situations.

You use this to refer to a situation that is continuing to exist, or to an event that is continuing to take place.

'My God,' I said, 'This is awful.'
This whole business has gone on too long.

You use that to refer to an event or situation that has taken place recently.

I knew that meeting would be difficult.
That was a terrible air crash last week.
3. closeness

You use this or these to refer to people or things that are very near to you. For example, you use this to refer to an object you are holding in your hand, or something on a desk or table in front of you.

'What is this?' she said, picking up the parcel on my desk.
Wait a minute. I just have to sort these books out.

You use that or those to refer to people or things that you can see or hear, but that are not very near to you, so that, for example, you cannot put out your hand and touch them.

Look at that bird!
Can you move those boots off there?

When you are comparing two things and one of them is nearer to you than the other, you can use this to refer to the one that is nearer and that to refer to the one that is further away.

This one's nice but I don't like that one much.



This and these are used in different ways when you are referring to people, things, situations, events, or periods of time. They can both be determiners or pronouns. These is the plural form of this.

1. referring back

You can use this or these to refer to people, things, or events that have just been mentioned.

He's from the Institute of English Language in Bangkok. This institute has been set up to serve language teachers in the area.
Tax increases may be needed next year to do this.
These particular students are extremely bright.

Don't use 'this' as a pronoun to refer to a person who has just been mentioned. Instead you use he or she.

He was known to everyone as Eddie.
'Bye,' Mary said as she drove away.

In conversation, many people use this and these as determiners even when they are mentioning people or things for the first time.

Then this guy came to the door of the class and he said, 'Mary, you're wanted out here in the hall.'
At school we had to wear these awful white cotton hats.
2. closeness

You can use this or these to refer to people or things that are very near to you. For example, if you are holding a book, you refer to it as 'this book'.

The colonel handed him the bag. 'This is for you,' he said.
Get these kids out of here.

'This' is not usually used as a pronoun to refer to a person. You only use it when you are identifying someone or asking them about their identity. For example, you use this when you are introducing someone. Note that when you are introducing more than one person, you use this, not 'these'.

This is Bernadette, Mr Zapp.
This is my brother Andrew and his wife Claire.

You also use this to say who you are when you phone someone.

Sally? This is Martin Brody.
3. present situations

You can use this to refer to a situation that exists now or to an event that is happening now.

You know a lot about this situation.
4. 'this' and 'these' in time expressions

This is used in the following ways in time expressions:

You use it with morning, afternoon, or evening to refer to the morning, afternoon, or evening of the present day.

I was here this afternoon. Have you forgotten?

However, don't say 'this day'. You say today.

I had a letter today from my solicitor.

Also, don't say 'this night'. You refer to the previous night as last night. You refer to the night of the present day as tonight.

We left our bedroom window open last night.
I think I'll go to bed early tonight.

This week, month, or year means the present week, month, or year.

They're talking about going on strike this week.

You usually use this with weekend or with the name of a day, month, or season to refer to the next weekend or to the next day, month, or season with that name.

Come down there with me this weekend.
Let's fix a time. This Sunday. Four o'clock.

However, you can also use this with one of these words to refer to the previous weekend, or the previous day, month, or season with that name.

This summer they spent £15 million on emergency shelters for the homeless.

These days means 'at the present time'.

The prices these days are absolutely ridiculous.
5. 'that' and 'those'

That and those are used in some similar ways to this and these.

See this - that (for an explanation of the differences)
إلى هذا الحَد، إلى هذه الدَّرَجَههذاهَذَا أَوْ هَذِهِهذا: إشارَةٌ إلى القَريبهذا: للإشارَه
òessi, òettaòessi/òettaòessi/òetta hérnasvona, svo, òettaþað
이, 이것이것
šitasštai taipvienas toks
den härdennadet härdetta
cái nàynàyngười/vật này


A. DEM ADJ (these (pl)) → este/a
this man/bookeste hombre/libro
this womanesta mujer
this eveningesta tarde
this one hereéste/ésta que está aquí, éste/ésta de aquí
it's not that picture but this one I likeno es ese cuadro el que me gusta sino éste
this timeesta vez
this time next weekde hoy en una semana
this time last yearhoy hace un año
this waypor aquí
this weekesta semana
this coming weekesta semana que viene
see also these
B. DEM PRON (these (pl)) → éste/a; (neuter) → esto
who is this?¿quién es?
what is this?¿qué es esto?
this is newesto es nuevo
this is Mr Brown (in introductions) → le presento al señor Brown; (in photo) → éste es el señor Brown; (on phone) → soy or habla el señor Brown
I prefer this to thatprefiero esto a aquello
but this is Aprilpero estamos en abril
this is Fridayhoy es viernes
where did you find this?¿dónde encontraste esto?
this is where I liveaquí vivo
"but he's nearly bald" - "this is it"-pero está casi calvo -ahí está la dificultad
what's all this?¿qué pasa?
what's all this I hear about you leaving?¿qué es eso de que te vas?
do it like thishágalo así
it was like thiste diré lo que pasó ...
what with this, that and the other I was busy all weekentre una cosa y otra estuve ocupado toda la semana
they sat talking of this and thatsentados, hablaban de esto y lo otro
see also these
I didn't know it was this farno sabía que estaba tan lejos
I've never been this far beforenunca había llegado hasta aquí
the wall is this highla pared es así de alta
he is this highes así de alto
I've never seen this much moneynunca había visto tanto dinero junto
I can tell you this muchlo que sí te puedo decir es ...
The masculine and feminine pronouns éste and ésta usually carry accents. In theory, this is to distinguish them from the masculine and feminine adjectives, "este" and "esta". When there is no ambiguity, the accent can be omitted. The neuter pronoun esto does not have an accent as there is no neuter adjective with which to confuse it.


dem adj [these] [ˈðiːz] (pl)
(unstressed)ce(cette), cet before masc noun beginning with a vowel or before mute h, ces pl
Have you read this book? → Avez-vous lu ce livre?
Who is this man? → Qui est cet homme?
Who is this woman? → Qui est cette femme?
Whose are these shoes? → À qui sont ces chaussures?
(stressed, as opposed to that)ce ... -ci m, cet ... -ci before masc noun beginning with a vowel or before mute h, cette ... -ci f
THIS is the book I wanted → Ce livre-ci est celui que je voulais., C'est ce livre que je voulais.
THIS is the right road → Cette route-ci est la bonne., C'est cette route qui est la bonne.
this one → celui-ci(celle-ci)
"Pass me that pen." - "This one?" → "Passe-moi ce stylo." - "Celui-ci?"
Of the two photos, I prefer this one → Des deux photos, c'est celle-ci que je préfère.
this time → cette fois-ci
this time last year → l'année dernière à la même époque
this way (= in this direction) → par ici (= in this fashion) → de cette façon, ainsi
dem pron [these] [ˈðiːz] (pl)
(as subject of "être")ce
what's this? → qu'est-ce que c'est?
what are these? → qu'est-ce que c'est?
who's this? → qui est-ce?
this is ...
This is what he said → Voici ce qu'il a dit.
this is Mr. Brown (in introductions)je vous présente M. Brown; (in photo)c'est M. Brown; (on telephone)ici M. Brown
This is Gavin speaking → Gavin à l'appareil.
(= this thing)
You see this? → Tu vois ça?
this and that
They were talking of this and that → Ils parlaient de choses et d'autres.
(as opposed to that)celui-ci(celle-ci), ceux-là (celles-là)plceci
I want this! → Je veux celui-ci!
I want these! → Je veux ceux-ci!
I'm looking for some sandals. Can I try these? → Je cherche des sandales. Est-ce que je peux essayer celles-ci?
I prefer this to that → je préfère ceci à cela
It was about this big → C'était à peu près grand comme ça.
I didn't know it was this bad → Je ne savais pas que c'était si mauvais., Je ne savais pas que c'était aussi mauvais.


dem pron pl <these> → dies, das; what is this?was ist das (hier)?; who is this?wer ist das?; this is Johndas or dies ist John; these are my childrendas or dies sind meine Kinder; this is where I livehier wohne ich; this is what he showed medies or das (hier) hat er mir gezeigt; do you like this?gefällt dir das?; I prefer thisich mag das hier or dies(es) lieber; this is to certify that …hiermit wird bestätigt, dass …; under/in front of etc thisdarunter/davor etc; it ought to have been done before thises hätte schon vorher getan werden sollen; with this he left usdamit or mit diesen Worten verließ er uns; what’s all this?was soll das?; what’s all this I hear about your new job?was höre ich da so (alles) über deine neue Stelle?; this and thatmancherlei; we were talking of this and thatwir haben von diesem und jenem or über dies und das geredet; this, that and the otheralles Mögliche; will you take this or that?nehmen Sie dieses hier oder das da?; it was like thises war so; this is Friday the 13thheute ist Freitag der 13.; but this is Mayaber es ist doch Mai!; and now this!und jetzt (auch noch) dies or das!; this is Mary (speaking)hier (ist) Mary; this is what I mean!das meine ich (ja)!; this is it! (= now)jetzt!; (showing sth) → das da!, das ist er/sie/es!; (= exactly)genau!
dem adj pl <these> → diese(r, s); this weekdiese Woche; this monthdiesen Monat; this yeardieses Jahr; this eveningheute Abend; this time last weekletzte Woche um diese Zeit; this coming weekjetzt die (kommende) Woche; this timediesmal, dieses Mal; these daysheutzutage; all this talkdieses ganze Gerede, all das or dies Gerede; to run this way and thathin und her rennen; I have been waiting for you this past half-hourich habe bereits die letzte halbe Stunde auf dich gewartet; this boy of yours!also, Ihr Junge!; I met this guy who … (inf)ich habe (so) einen getroffen, der …; this friend of hersdieser Freund von ihr (inf), → ihr Freund
dem advso; it was this longes war so lang; this far (time) → bis jetzt; (place) → so weit, bis hierher; this much is certainso viel ist sicher, eins steht fest


(ðis) plural these (ðiːz) adjective
1. used to indicate a person, thing etc nearby or close in time. This book is better than that (one); I prefer these trousers.
2. used in stories to indicate a person, thing etc that one is describing or about to describe. Then this man arrived.
used for a thing etc or a person nearby or close in time. Read this – you'll like it; This is my friend John Smith.
so; to this degree. I didn't think it would be this easy.
like this
in this way. It would be quicker if you did it like this.


هذا, هَذَا أَوْ هَذِهِ tahle, tohle, toto denne, det, dette das, dies, dieses αυτός, τούτος este, éste, esto näin, tämä ce, cela, celui-ci ovaj, ovo questo この, これ, 이, 이것, 이것 deze, dit denne, dette, taki, ten, to deste, destes, este, isto это, этот den här, denna, det här, detta นี้, สิ่งนี้ bu cái này, này, người/vật này 这个