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pron.andadj., pl. these (tēz);
This entry deals with the similarities and differences between the ways in which these words are used.
You use that or those when you are referring to something for the second time in a sentence, using the same noun.
You usually use that, rather than 'this', to refer to a statement that someone has just made.
You can use this or that to talk about events or situations.
You use this to refer to a situation that is continuing to exist, or to an event that is continuing to take place.
You use that to refer to an event or situation that has taken place recently.
You use this or these to refer to people or things that are very near to you. For example, you use this to refer to an object you are holding in your hand, or something on a desk or table in front of you.
You use that or those to refer to people or things that you can see or hear, but that are not very near to you, so that, for example, you cannot put out your hand and touch them.
When you are comparing two things and one of them is nearer to you than the other, you can use this to refer to the one that is nearer and that to refer to the one that is further away.
This and these are used in different ways when you are referring to people, things, situations, events, or periods of time. They can both be determiners or pronouns. These is the plural form of this.
You can use this or these to refer to people, things, or events that have just been mentioned.
Don't use 'this' as a pronoun to refer to a person who has just been mentioned. Instead you use he or she.
In conversation, many people use this and these as determiners even when they are mentioning people or things for the first time.
You can use this or these to refer to people or things that are very near to you. For example, if you are holding a book, you refer to it as 'this book'.
'This' is not usually used as a pronoun to refer to a person. You only use it when you are identifying someone or asking them about their identity. For example, you use this when you are introducing someone. Note that when you are introducing more than one person, you use this, not 'these'.
You also use this to say who you are when you phone someone.
You can use this to refer to a situation that exists now or to an event that is happening now.
This is used in the following ways in time expressions:
You use it with morning, afternoon, or evening to refer to the morning, afternoon, or evening of the present day.
However, don't say 'this day'. You say today.
Also, don't say 'this night'. You refer to the previous night as last night. You refer to the night of the present day as tonight.
This week, month, or year means the present week, month, or year.
You usually use this with weekend or with the name of a day, month, or season to refer to the next weekend or to the next day, month, or season with that name.
However, you can also use this with one of these words to refer to the previous weekend, or the previous day, month, or season with that name.
These days means 'at the present time'.
That and those are used in some similar ways to this and these.
this man/book → este hombre/libro
this woman → esta mujer
this evening → esta tarde
this one here → éste/ésta que está aquí, éste/ésta de aquí
it's not that picture but this one I like → no es ese cuadro el que me gusta sino éste
this time → esta vez
this time next week → de hoy en una semana
this time last year → hoy hace un año
this way → por aquí
this week → esta semana
this coming week → esta semana que viene
see also these
who is this? → ¿quién es?
what is this? → ¿qué es esto?
this is new → esto es nuevo
this is Mr Brown (in introductions) → le presento al señor Brown; (in photo) → éste es el señor Brown; (on phone) → soy or habla el señor Brown
I prefer this to that → prefiero esto a aquello
but this is April → pero estamos en abril
this is Friday → hoy es viernes
where did you find this? → ¿dónde encontraste esto?
this is where I live → aquí vivo
"but he's nearly bald" - "this is it" → -pero está casi calvo -ahí está la dificultad
what's all this? → ¿qué pasa?
what's all this I hear about you leaving? → ¿qué es eso de que te vas?
do it like this → hágalo así
it was like this → te diré lo que pasó ...
what with this, that and the other I was busy all week → entre una cosa y otra estuve ocupado toda la semana
they sat talking of this and that → sentados, hablaban de esto y lo otro
see also these
I didn't know it was this far → no sabía que estaba tan lejos
I've never been this far before → nunca había llegado hasta aquí
the wall is this high → la pared es así de alta
he is this high → es así de alto
I've never seen this much money → nunca había visto tanto dinero junto
I can tell you this much → lo que sí te puedo decir es ...
Have you read this book? → Avez-vous lu ce livre?
Who is this man? → Qui est cet homme?
Who is this woman? → Qui est cette femme?
Whose are these shoes? → À qui sont ces chaussures?
THIS is the book I wanted → Ce livre-ci est celui que je voulais., C'est ce livre que je voulais.
THIS is the right road → Cette route-ci est la bonne., C'est cette route qui est la bonne.
this one → celui-ci(celle-ci)
"Pass me that pen." - "This one?" → "Passe-moi ce stylo." - "Celui-ci?"
Of the two photos, I prefer this one → Des deux photos, c'est celle-ci que je préfère.
this time → cette fois-ci
this time last year → l'année dernière à la même époque
this way (= in this direction) → par ici (= in this fashion) → de cette façon, ainsi
what's this? → qu'est-ce que c'est?
what are these? → qu'est-ce que c'est?
who's this? → qui est-ce?
this is ...
This is what he said → Voici ce qu'il a dit.
this is Mr. Brown (in introductions) → je vous présente M. Brown; (in photo) → c'est M. Brown; (on telephone) → ici M. Brown
This is Gavin speaking → Gavin à l'appareil.
You see this? → Tu vois ça?
this and that
They were talking of this and that → Ils parlaient de choses et d'autres.