Species-specific variations must be considered, like the shortened tibiotarsus
and chondrodystrophic bones in the Japanese bantam, silkie, and Chabo chickens (Fig lb); the development of a helmet-like structure in the Polish chicken and the crested duck; and the manifold variations in hind limb anatomy, like Polydactyly in Faverolle chickens (Fig 2b) and the typical metatarsal spur of male game birds (Fig 10).
Antennal segments 1 to 3, head, body, legs to tibiotarsus
, collophore scales only on posterior face, and ventral face of furcula.
Finally, an isolated tibiotarsus
exhibits bird-like features and a partial sacrum first provisionally regarded as pterosaurian actually belongs to a large ground bird probably related to Gargantuavis (Buffetaut et al.
Forty experimental arrays with femur and tibiotarsus
bones of adult vs.
Many studies are done on chicken with special aspects of leg skeletal development, like knee joint development [24, 25] or development of a certain bone, for example tibiotarsus
or tarsometatarsus [9, 28], with only a now-and-then mentioning of other parts of the skeletal system.
11); pregonopodial legs lacking femoral processes; tibiotarsus
of gonopod divided into one short basal and two longer, slender appendages (Fig.
Dr Fitzgerald said the bone was from the lower half of one of the leg bones, "a tibiotarsus
, which corresponds to the shin and ankle in humans".
Response of broilers to feeding low--calcium and phosphorus diets plus phytase under different environmental conditions: Body weight and tibiotarsus
Chaetotaxy of palp as follows: trochanter none; basifemur with one simple seta; telofemur with one uncinate apophysis and one simple seta; genu with one spine like seta and two simple setae; tibiotarsus
with 4 simple setae, one thick spine like seta and terminating in a small claw (Fig.
Observing that a number of the bird bones were fractured, we carried out a systematic examination of all major wing and leg (tarsometatarsus, tibiotarsus
, femur, humerus, ulna, radius) bones for fracture patterns, for remains from TP-5, -6, -10, and -11.
The Rancho del Oro material is identical to living coots, except that the ulna and tibiotarsus
are slightly more slender.
Sternal end of coracoid, distal end of ulna, shaft of radius, distal end of tibiotarsus