We cannot overestimate the importance of the change effected in the Roman constitution by the creation of the plebeian tribunate
," writes historian Philip Van Ness Myers.
Steve Baker goes against the stereotypical portrait of Petrarch as a forlorn unrequited lover or a solitary figure writing letters to ancient figures of antiquity or to posterity in order to examine his involvement in the messy business of trying to improve the political reality of his day, in particular, his active support for the popular leader Cola di Rienzo in his insurrection against the aristocratic rulers of Rome ("Writing the Revolution: Petrarch and the Tribunate
of Cola di Rienzo").
Laws were to be drafted by a council of state, discussed in second body, The Tribunate
and voted by legislative assembly.
The Parthian War ended in 117 and, although decorations were sometimes awarded during campaigning, the end of the war is the likely date of the decoration; in any case, this is the most probable date for the end of his tribunate
154, Holconius Rufus' tribunate
was not "an honorary rank" : even if members of the equestrian order in Italy only became tribunes from reasons of prestige, they still actually served for "at least a year" in a legion.
66) Boren argues that it was actually Tiberius' 'use of the office of the plebeian tribunate
which was more precisely revolutionary.
In both this play and Coriolanus, Shakespeare examines the tribunate
as the advent of political representationalism only to show how it is ineffective.
Tiberius, the elder of the two, was assassinated by political foes during his tribunate
in 133; Gaius, who then successfully ran for the tribunate
and adopted his brother's radical positions in support of agrarian reform, was killed by his political foes in 121.
However, the play does not uphold Coriolanus's oligarchical ideal, but suggests the possibility of a balanced state where power could be shared, and the tribunate
appears to be the answer.
The Plebian struggle resulted in the formation of the Tribunate
of the Plebes, who were elected by Plebians only and they could "veto" (I forbid) any proposal of the Senate.
These men included consuls; ministers with and without portfolios; members of the Council of State, Senate, Corps Legislative, Tribunate
, and prefectures; and members of other state bureaus in Paris and the provinces.
The nadir is reached when the republic is assimilated to "a company divided into management and labor"; humoral conflicts to bad labor relations ("it is good if the workers are unsatisfied, quarrelsome, and suspicious; it is good if they hurl insults at their bosses, have work slowdowns, and go on strike"); the tribunate
to labor unions; law to the means of institutionalizing labor unrest; liberty to the safeguards against exploitation; and power to the profits of the company (p.