According to the inaugural issue of its journal, 64, the organization had three goals at its outset: first, to use chess as a "weapon of culture" against the "vestiges of the previous period of tsarism
, against darkness and unculturedness [nekul 'turnost']"; second, to grow chess masters who "like an artist with his brush increase cultural wealth"; third, to make chess a "school of struggle and school of upbringing" that would foster character traits "necessary in all our lives.
22) Peter Gatrell, The Tsarist Economy, 1850-1917 (London: Batsford, 1986); and Gatrell, Government, Industry, and Rearmament in Russia, 1900-1914: The Last Argument of Tsarism
(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994).
Like Karl Marx before him, he looked forward to a world war that would destroy tsarism
and international capitalism, which, he felt, had also held him back in his own life and career.
The very existence of "feudallsm" in Russia was now under attack, and with it the entire Marxist and Soviet interpretation of Russian history--namely, the presumed passage from feudallsm to capitallsm under late tsarism
and hence the historical explanation for the revolution.
The adoption of a new set of ideas that turned out to be much more effective than Communism or Tsarism
On the one hand, it spelled the end of tsarism
and, along with the unrest in Germany in November 1918, the end of the age of proletarian uprisings in Europe.
They currently have the more pressing issue of dealing with a pretend democracy led by Vladimir Putin that is looking increasingly like a reincarnation of tsarism
Synopsis: "Vladimir Burtsev and the Struggle for a Free Russia: A Revolutionary in the Time of Tsarism
and Bolshevism" by Robert Henderson (Honorary Research Associate at Queen Mary, University of London, UK, and the author of numerous journal articles and book chapters in the field of Russian history) presents the life of the journalist, historian and revolutionary, Vladimir Burtsev.
Thus, the prestige of the October Revolution stemmed from its capacity to keep Russian feudalism, tsarism
and capitalism in check.
negotiations, conferential tsarism
remains an enduring, if
Most studies of contemporary Russian politics give short shrift to the Soviet past or provide a canned history of tsarism
and Soviet communism before turning to a detailed discussion of the collapse of the Soviet regime and emergence of independent postcommunist Russia.
He observed the period between 1917 and 1919 during which history played out in complex ways, including Lenin ascending to govern through the collapse of Tsarism
in Russia, and the culmination of communist revolutions in defeat, including in his native Italy.