While in some countries an attempt was made to overcome the Ultramontanism
of the local Catholic churches and to form national apostolic churches, this ideology dominated a major part of the evangelical mentality in the latter part of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th.
The influence of Ultramontanism
, vigorously promoted by Archbishop Walsh, fostered an expansive and assertive attitude, compared to which the accommodating approach of the Cape Breton Scots seemed timid and complacent.
And needless elementary mistakes occur in regard to matters far beyond American Jewish history, such as the theories of Benedict Anderson and Max Weber and the relationship between Ultramontanism
and Jansenism in the Catholic Church.
Among his topics are political violence and Irish Catholicism, 1978-1998, Fenian terror and Catholicism in North America, Cardinal Cullen's ultramontanism
, Catholic chaplains to the British forces in the First World War, and the Catholic Church and the nationalist community in Northern Ireland since 1960.
As a means of deconstructing the "artificial village" represented by the Vatican, modernist Catholics rejected ultramontanism
, encouraged the proliferation of biblical and historical criticism, advocated for a "dynamic conception of the universe," and argued that "religious truth [was] conceived not as something given from without but discovered through human experience" (McGiffert 1910,29).
It has recently been suggested of Archbishop Ullathorne of Birmingham, one of Vaughan's exemplars of episcopal authority and efficiency, and his brother bishops in England in the second half of the nineteenth century, that they were engaged after 1850 in 'developing a style, a theology and a spirituality of European Ultramontanism
for the Catholic Church in England' which 'has rarely been examined closely'.
The Society was also more than a bystander when it came to the developments that defined the Church during the same period: the cause of Ultramontanism
, the Americanist and Modernist crises, the Thomist revival, the encounter with Fascism and Communism, the evolution of Social Catholicism, all the way through to the emergence and elucidation of Liberation Theology.
The predicament that politically conservative Catholics now find themselves in is that, having made ultramontanism
and Jesuit activity became the enemy of the universal ideals that were espoused by most Jews.
Particularly interesting is the discussion of Ultramontanism
, the push to adopt Roman practice and pronouncements, and the way that efforts to research (and justify) a uniform pan-Catholic liturgy exposed rifts in the historical record that ultimately resulted, in England, in the revival of the Sarum rite and Tudor polyphony.
The power of the church was reinforced after the Great Famine by the 'devotional revolution', a process marked by the imposition of Ultramontanism
in the hierarchy, a major growth in the number of religious, and a consolidation of clerical control over religious practice, education, and health provision.
The proper response to the secular state was not reactionary but liberal ultramontanism