GNSS ionosphere-free observations are generally expressed as
We start with a VAR model using undifferenced
data, including 8 lagged terms, and iteratively delete insignificant lags using the Bayesian Information Criteria (BIC).
Integer ambiguity resolution on undifferenced
GPS phase measurements and its application to PPP.
we do not include any regressors in the undifferenced
regression model (11)).
Variables specified as additional instruments (lagged saving) are included, undifferenced
, in the instruments matrix.
We also estimated differenced models, but the undifferenced
models produced more parsimonious results.
The lag length of the Johansen procedure was determined by the Schwarz Information Criterion (SIC) on the undifferenced
VAR (See Schwarz, 1978) while ensuring all residual series from the VAR were uncorrelated.
All these studies find that the variables in their models must be differenced to become stationary, a property that undermines the validity of traditional estimation procedures and statistical inferences in regressions involving undifferenced
We begin by partitioning our sample into thirds, based on the value of undifferenced
rather than differenced prior forecast error (i.
For comparison, the conventional regression analysis is employed first to test for the relationship between fertility, female labor participation, and education using undifferenced
The null hypothesis of a unit root was not rejected for the undifferenced
series, but it was rejected for the differenced series.
So do we strive to differentiate the divine attributes, according as these attributes are undifferenced
[sic] or differentiated.