For the dorsals, palatals are [+ high, - back] (/-colored), velars are [+ high, + back] (u-colored), and uvulars are [+ low, + back] (a-colored).
1 Due to the split of its uvulars, Proto-Elamitic has a more complex set of dorsals, PEI /*q, *x, *k, *k/.
Dental r-sounds also have a relatively high third formant, though not so high as the uvulars (Lindau 1985: 165).
Thus, Lass--Anderson (1975: 85-89) argue in favour of a back articulation of Old English /r/ (a uvular fricative [[?
Baxter, Reconstructing Old Chinese Uvulars
in the Baxter Sagart System (Version 0.
There are linguistic reasons to believe, however, that the stone pillar is not a fake: the velar fricatives (Haudricourt's uvulars
) are adequately represented in the inscription; it is quite doubtful that a fake stone pillar could have been engraved by a linguist who would have read Haudricourt's 1952 article on the uvulars
Stops adjacent to one vowel, whether in the same syllable or not, cannot mix velars and uvulars (or separately dentals and retroflexes) unless a morpheme boundary intervenes.
Both the distribution of *k before all vowels and the fact that *q has cognates with high vowels elsewhere in Dravidian argue that the correct formulation is that all high vowels were lowered to mid vowels after initial uvulars.
front k) are [+high, -low, -back], velars are [+high, -low, +back], uvulars are [-high, -low, +back], and pharyngeals are [-high, +low, +back].
The height-neutral feature back will not form a constriction by itself in the mouth, except for the far-back uvular articulation.
Here, Holes presents a review of those features which are "salient markers of geography or identity," such as variation in the pronunciation of interdentals, velars and uvulars
, the alveolar fricative /j/, and the various reflexes of /q/.
In Nanai, a Tungusic language of the lower Amur region, k, g, and x have uvular
variants when occurring before vowels of the pharyngeal series; 1 likewise has a darker (i.