is considered the reference standard for the diagnosis of upper extremity thrombosis, but is infrequently performed due its invasive nature and the availability of noninvasive alternatives.
13] Reichenbach JR, Essig M, Haacke EM, Lee BC, Przetak C, Kaiser WA, Schad LR, "High resolution venography
of the brain using magnetic resonance imaging," MAGMA, 6:62-69, 1998.
Through a small catheter in my internal jugular, x-ray guided venography
was used to find the offending veins.
Magnetic resonance venography
revealed bilateral transverse sinus stenosis [Figure 1]a.
6] Magnetic resonance (MR) venography
(comparable to conventional venography
)  confirmed venous stenoses in 4 of the 14 patients (29%) with >14 catheter days.
This is associated with a number of potential complications including capsular laceration during wedged venography
(5), gallbladder puncture, intra-abdominal hemorrhage following extrahepatic puncture of the main portal vein (6) or transcapsular puncture.
14) CT venography
can be useful in confirming a diagnosis of CVT and is comparable to magnetic resonance (MR) venography
Orders can be changed to MR venography
, and I've had patients who've gone decades with multiple MR venograms and no one can figure out what's going on as no identifiable lesion is readily detected," he said.
The diagnosis of DVT should be confirmed by auxiliary examinations, such as Doppler ultrasound, plasma D-dimer, venography
, magnetic resonance imaging venography
The PLSVC can be diagnosed by chest X-ray, venography
, contrast CT scan, trans-thoracic and trans-esophageal echocardiography.
Should Include Long Preshaped Slittable Sheaths For Coronary Sinus Cannulation In Multiple Shapes, Subselective Inner Sheaths, Guidewire And Occlusion Balloon Catheter For Coronary Venography
It can also be used to monitor the procedures such as angiography, venography
, orthopedic surgeries, and placement of peritoneal catheters, certain biopsies and many other surgical procedures which require radiological intervention.