3,4 Despite its ease of application and better biomechanical stability, when compared with other techniques, the main risk remains that of violating the spinal nerve root, vertebral artery
, and/or facet joint.
AP view digital subtraction angiography (Figure 4) following injection of the left vertebral artery
demonstrates opacification of the left middle cerebral arterial (MCA) system.
(VA) arises from the superolateral aspect of 1st part of the subclavian artery and takes a vertical posterior course to enter the foramina transversaria of 6th cervical vertebrae.
Craniocervical artery dissection (CCAD) corresponds to a hematoma in the wall of the internal carotid or vertebral artery
, and is a major cause of stroke in young and middle aged adults (1).
24 to identify patients from April 2008 through March 2012 who had primary or secondary diagnoses of vertebral artery
dissection (VAD) or carotid artery dissection (CAD).
Neither Donovan, of Childwall, nor Taylor, of Huyton, admitted throwing the punch which ruptured Mr Doyle's vertebral artery
, leading to a brain bleed.
Neither Donovan, 30 - a sports-event manager from Childwall - nor Taylor, 29, of Huyton, admitted throwing the fatal punch, which ruptured Doyle's vertebral artery
and led to bleeding on the brain.
Although mortality rates for extracranial carotid and vertebral artery
dissections are reported to be between 5% and 10%, mortality rates increase to above 70% for intracranial carotid and basilar artery dissections (1).
For the residual tumour which was abutting the vertebral artery
, she underwent cyber knife robotic radiosurgery.
Left vertebral artery
angiogram showed that the posterior circulation system provided the compensatory blood supply to the anterior circulation through bilateral posterior communicating arteries and distal cortical branches [Figure 1]e.
Vertebrobasilar junction and vertebral artery
Seven patients (8%) were treated expectantly; vertebral artery
(2), internal carotid artery (2) and descending aortic (3) injuries.