EN 16939:2017 - Animal feeding stuffs: Methods of sampling and analysis - Detection of tylosin, spiramycin and virginiamycin
- Thin Layer Chromatography and bioautography
As an alternative to ionophores, virginiamycin
(VM) is an antimicrobial also effective against growth of gram-positive bacteria, including ruminal lactic acid-producing bacteria, reducing the possibility of lactic acidosis associated digestive dysfunctions.
In Sri Lanka, use of sub-therapeutic concentrations of antimicrobials is well regulated and only the following are allowed for use: bacitracin, virginiamycin
, flavomycin and avilamycin.
Effects of two herbal extracts and virginiamycin
supplementation on growth performance, intestinal microflora population and fatty acid composition in broiler chickens.
The effects of necrotic enteritis, aflatoxin B1 and virginiamycin
on growth performance, necrotic enteritis lesion scores, and mortality in young broilers, Poult.
18] suggested an association of quinupristin/dalfopristin resistance with the use of virginiamycin
as a feed additive and indicate the possibility of transfer to humans via the food chain.
1]) Dry matter 574 Organic matter 541 Crude protein 149 Mineral matter 42 Neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein 250 Acid detergent fiber 101 Non-fibrous carbohydrates 517 Ether extract 38 Total digestible nutrients * 744 Composition per kg: calcium 180 g, phosphorus 20 g, iodine 25 mg, magnesium 17 g, manganese 840 mg, monensin 833 mg, selenium 7 mg, sodium 86 g, virginiamycin
500 mg, cobalt 25 mg, copper 420 mg, iron 490 mg, vitamin A 83, 200 IU, vitamin D3 10,400 IU, vitamin E 242 IU, zinc 2,000 mg.
Chicken flocks fed DFM and virginiamycin
diets exhibited improvement in the feed consumption and utilization, feed conversion ratio, growth performance and live body weight .
2009) reported no improvement in weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion with addition of virginiamycin
For example, avoparcin and virginiamycin
, considered 'animal-only' antibiotics, could select strains resistant to drugs recently approved for humans.
Comparative Effects of Virginiamycin
Supplementation on Characteristics of Growth-Performance, Dietary Energetics, and Digestion of Calf-Fed Holstein Steers.
Babatunde Response of broiler chicks to virginiamycin
and dietary protein concentrations in the humid tropics" Arch de Zootec vol.