And, just as for standard voluntarists
, there is no independent standard--metaphysical or otherwise--of morality apart from God's commands, there is no independent standard of goodness with respect to God's goodness as well.
It must be noticed that the difference between rationalists and voluntarists
is not a definite one, but rather one of emphasis.
34) In polar opposition to the theological voluntarists
, some eighteenth-century thinkers argued that any ultimate appeal to scriptural commands violated the first principle of enlightenment, as expressed by the maxim "Dare to know
Even moral voluntarists
who believe that none of this can be seen in the natural world due to human sin, acknowledge that "the wages of sin is death" (Rom.
Conceptually, criminal law voluntarists
tend to view strong emotions as diminishing an offender's culpability on the ground that they detract from "the accused's capacity for self-control" or constrain her opportunity to exercise it.
For both Cudworth and Price, in running the Cudworthy argument, take care to insist that voluntarists
cannot really intend to mean that "ought to" just means "has been commanded by God to," and in favor of this point each offers an argument that anticipates Moore's Open Question Argument (19) (in fact, Price's argument is plausibly more careful than Moore's).
It suffices here to say that the Ash'arites are neither fatalists since they believe in human choice and moral responsibility nor voluntarists
since they believe in divine predestination, but are somewhere in between; however this paradox can only be resolved not at the discursive, theoretical level but at the level of intuitive spiritual experience.
, such as Nozick, would therefore argue against the view that the nation-state could be conceived as a voluntary association and hold that distributive communities would have to be much smaller.
, influenced by Kant, claim that criminal liability is founded upon the agent's choice as to whether or not to obey the law; on this view, a person who commits a criminal act is entitled to an excuse just in case she could not have chosen other than as she did.
It is to the philosophical and humanistic classics of antiquity rather than to the medieval Christian authorities that he turns, although he opposes classical rationalism, although he places Jesus Christ among the ethical voluntarists
whom he praises, and although, while not himself emphasizing it in his scholarship, he accepts a theological and transcendent horizon beyond ethics.
55) The antidote to the contemporary manifestation of this legacy, I suggest, requires that one appeal to the antecedent tradition that voluntarists
and nominalists attacked.
The intellectual context for Bernard, as well as the other thinkers discussed in this book (Augustine, Pseudo-Dionysius, John of Damascus, Anselm, Abelard, Aquinas, Henry of Ghent, John Duns Scotus, William of Ockham, and a substantial number of lesser-known voluntarists
, intellectualists, and Renaissance and Reformation figures, as well as Luther) was clearly the concern--both pastoral and theoretical--of Christian moral theologians with sin and salvation (indeed, the editors identify six non-Aristotelian contexts for the medieval discussion).