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1. The possessive form of who.
2. The possessive form of which.

[Middle English whos, from Old English hwæs; see kwo- in Indo-European roots.]
Usage Note: The use of whose to refer to inanimate antecedents (as in We could see a building whose roof was painted gold) has been criticized by usage commentators since the 1700s. The tradition holds that whose should function only as the possessive of who, and be limited in reference to persons. Nonetheless, whose has been used to refer to inanimate things since the 1300s, and it appears in the works of many illustrious writers, including Shakespeare, Milton, and Wordsworth. This use of whose undoubtedly serves a useful purpose, since which and that do not have possessive forms, and the substitute phrase of which is often cumbersome. Thus, the sentence He pointed to a grove of trees whose trunks were coated with ice is made somewhat stilted by the avoidance of whose: He pointed to a grove of trees, the trunks of which were coated with ice. As sentences become more complicated, the use of of which can be especially clumsy. But the notion of whose properly being a form of who (and not which) has considerable bearing on attitudes about the word. In our 2002 survey, only 44 percent of the Usage Panel approved of an example in which whose refers to a river: The EPA has decided to dredge the river, whose bottom has been polluted for years. The association of whose with people undoubtedly influenced the Panel's response to an example that is syntactically similar to the previous one, in which the antecedent is a book, but the subject of the whose clause is a person. Some 63 percent of the Panel accepted the sentence The book, whose narrator speaks in the first person, is a mock autobiography. Note that this still leaves almost 40 percent of the Panel in disapproval. Because the alternative phrasing to whose can be so awkward, there is often no easy solution to this problem except to recast the sentence to avoid whose altogether. See Usage Notes at else, which, who.


a. of whom? belonging to whom? used in direct and indirect questions: I told him whose fault it was; whose car is this?.
b. (as pronoun): whose is that?.
2. of whom; belonging to whom; of which; belonging to which: used as a relative pronoun: a house whose windows are broken.
[Old English hwæs, genitive of hwā who and hwæt what]



1. the possessive case of who used as an adjective: someone whose faith is strong.
2. the possessive case of which used as an adjective: a word whose meaning escapes me; a cat whose fur is white.
3. the one or ones belonging to what person or persons: Whose umbrella is that?
[before 900; Middle English whos, early Middle English hwās, alter. of hwas, Old English hwæs, genitive of hwā who]
usage: Sometimes the phrase of which is used as the possessive of which:Chicago is a city of which the attractions are many or Chicago is a city the attractions of which are many. The use of this phrase can often seem awkward or pretentious, whereas whose sounds more idiomatic: Chicago is a city whose attractions are many.


1. used in relative clauses

You use a noun phrase containing whose /huːz/ at the beginning of a relative clause to show who or what something belongs to or is connected with. Whose is used in both defining and non-defining clauses.

A noun phrase containing whose can be the subject or object of a verb, or the object of a preposition.

It is a story whose purpose is to entertain.
This was one of the students whose work I had seen.

When whose is the object of a preposition, the preposition can come at the beginning or end of the clause.

You should consider the people in whose home you are staying.
It was an article whose subject I have never heard of.
2. used in questions

You use whose in questions when you are asking who something belongs to or is connected with. Whose can be a determiner or a pronoun.

Whose fault is it?
Whose is this?
3. used in reported clauses

Whose is also used in reported clauses.

It would be interesting to know whose idea it was.
Do you know whose fault it is?

Be Careful!
Don't confuse whose with who's, which is also pronounced /huːz/. When you write down what someone says, you can write 'who is' or 'who has' as who's. Don't write them as 'whose'.

'Edward drove me here.' – 'Who's Edward?'
Who's left these boots here?
aki éaki nek aki é?ki nek a ...?
hvershvers, sem
누구의누구의 것
của ai


A. PRON (in direct and indirect questions) → de quién
whose is this?¿de quién es esto?
whose are these? (1 owner expected) → ¿de quién son éstos?; (2 or more owners expected) → ¿de quiénes son éstos?
I don't know whose it isno sé de quién es
1. (in direct and indirect questions) → de quién
whose purse is this?¿de quién es este monedero?
whose cars are these? (1 owner expected) → ¿de quién son estos coches?; (2 or more owners expected) → ¿de quiénes son estos coches?
whose fault was it?¿quién tuvo la culpa?
whose car did you go in?¿en qué coche fuiste?
do you know whose hat this is?¿sabes de quién es este sombrero?
I don't know whose watch this isno sé de quién es este reloj
2. (relative) → cuyo
those whose passports I haveaquellas personas cuyos pasaportes tengo, or de las que tengo pasaportes
the man whose hat I tookel hombre cuyo sombrero tomé
the man whose seat I sat inel hombre en cuya silla me senté
the cup whose handle you brokela taza a la que le rompiste el asa

In direct and indirect questions
 Whose in direct questions as well as after report verbs and expressions of (un)certainty and doubt (e.g. no sé) translates as de quién/de quiénes, (never cuyo):
Whose coat is this? ¿De quién es este abrigo? He asked us whose coats they were Nos preguntó de quiénes eran los abrigos I don't know whose umbrella this is No sé de quién es este paraguas
As a relative
 In relative clauses whose can be translated by cuyo/cuya/cuyos/cuyas and must agree with the following noun:
The man whose daughter is a friend of Emily's works for the Government El señor cuya hija es amiga de Emily trabaja para el Gobierno ...the house whose roof collapsed... ...la casa cuyo tejado se hundió...
NOTE When whose refers to more than one noun, make cuyo agree with the first:
...a party whose policies and strategies are very extremist... ...un partido cuya política y tácticas son muy extremistas...
 However, cuyo is not much used in spoken Spanish. Try using another structure instead:
...the house whose roof collapsed... ...la casa a la que se le hundió el tejado... My daughter, whose short story won a prize in the school competition, wants to be a journalist Mi hija, a quien premiaron por su relato en el concurso de la escuela, quiere ser periodista
! There is no accent on quien here, as it is a relative pronoun.


(in questions)à qui
Whose book is this? → À qui est ce livre?
Whose pencil have you taken? → À qui est le crayon que vous avez pris?
Whose daughter are you?
BUT De qui êtes-vous la fille?.
(in relative clauses)dont
the man whose son you rescued → l'homme dont vous avez sauvé le fils
the woman whose car was stolen → la femme dont la voiture a été volée
the girl whose picture was in the paper → la jeune fille dont la photo était dans le journal
(in questions)à qui
Whose is this? → À qui est ceci?, À qui est-ce?
(in relative clauses)
I know whose it is → Je sais à qui cela appartient.


poss pron
(interrog) → wessen; whose is this?wem gehört das?; whose car did you go in?in wessen Auto sind Sie gefahren?
(rel) → dessen; (after f and pl) → deren


(huːz) adjective, pronoun
belonging to which person(?). Whose is this jacket?; Whose (jacket) is this?; Whose car did you come back in?; In whose house did this incident happen?; Tell me whose (pens) these are.
relative adjective, relative pronoun
of whom or which (the). Show me the boy whose father is a policeman; What is the name of the man whose this book is?


الَّذِي, لـِمَنْ čí hvis dessen, wessen τίνος, του οποίου cuyo, de quién kenen à qui, dont čije, čiji di chi 誰の, 誰のもの 누구의, 누구의 것 van wie hvem sin czyj cujo, de quem чей vars ของใคร, ของผู้ใด ki onun, kimin của ai 谁的
References in classic literature ?
He was called before the curtain, and with great propriety appeared, leading Hagar, whose singing was considered more wonderful than all the rest of the performance put together.
Oh, you Wing Biddlebaum, comb your hair, it's falling into your eyes," commanded the voice to the man, who was bald and whose ner- vous little hands fiddled about the bare white fore- head as though arranging a mass of tangled locks.
But he's written a wonderful story, telling how he happened to come across the ancient manuscripts in the tomb of some old Indian whose mummy he unearthed on a trip to Central America.
Once when he sat down to chat, he told us that in the immigrant car ahead there was a family from `across the water' whose destination was the same as ours.
If it was not a mother's place to look after children, whose on earth was it?
You will be under the care of a motherly good sort of woman, of whose kindness to you I can have no doubt.
Of Mans First Disobedience, and the Fruit Of that Forbidden Tree, whose mortal tast Brought Death into the World, and all our woe, With loss of EDEN, till one greater Man Restore us, and regain the blissful Seat, Sing Heav'nly Muse, that on the secret top Of OREB, or of SINAI, didst inspire That Shepherd, who first taught the chosen Seed, In the Beginning how the Heav'ns and Earth Rose out of CHAOS: Or if SION Hill Delight thee more, and SILOA'S Brook that flow'd Fast by the Oracle of God; I thence Invoke thy aid to my adventrous Song, That with no middle flight intends to soar Above th' AONIAN Mount, while it pursues Things unattempted yet in Prose or Rhime.
Oswald deemed it his duty to secure Gurth, as a fugitive of whose fate his master was to judge.
There had been mad wilful rejections, monstrous forms of self-torture and self-denial, whose origin was fear and whose result was a degradation infinitely more terrible than that fancied degradation from which, in their ignorance, they had sought to escape; Nature, in her wonderful irony, driving out the anchorite to feed with the wild animals of the desert and giving to the hermit the beasts of the field as his companions.
In very ancient times there lived a King, whose power lay not only in the vast extent of his dominions, but also in the magic secrets of which he was master.
The second clause of the second section of the second article empowers the President of the United States "to nominate, and by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to appoint ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of the Supreme Court, and all other OFFICERS of United States whose appointments are NOT in the Constitution OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR, and WHICH SHALL BE ESTABLISHED BY LAW.
That he was weakening perceptibly was evident, but so also was the ape, whose struggles were growing momentarily less.