Herbaceous layers of the forest along the Bosque River were similar to those reported for bottomland forests of north-central Oklahoma (Rice, 1965) where wingstem
(Verbesina alternifolia), instead of frostweed and Virginia wildrye (Elymus virginicus) instead of Canada wildrye, was reported.
, tall coneflowers and gray-headed coneflowers are
Oakham botanist Caren Caljouw advises considering many native New England plants that aren't usually in these mixes, such as orange milkweed, New York ironweed, boneset, cardinal flower and wingstem
The plants include daylilies, zinnias, Datura, Achillea, forget-me-nots, peonies, Astilbe, lemon balm, Liatris, castor bean, purple coneflower, Ajuga, sedum, wingstem
barberry (Berberis sp.
Other herbaceous species in abundance include stinging nettle (Urtica diocia), false nettle (Boehmeria cylindrica), ground ivy (Glechoma hederacea), smartweed (Polygonum pennsylvanicum), and wingstem
Several times Byron disappeared into the daisy wingstem
as he took the tree's measurements.
Fields of brilliant oxeye, coneflowers, goldenrod, wingstem
and ironweed hide the decay of Canadian thistles, fringed loosestrife, skullcap, wild petunias and meadow rue.
, burdock, ironweed, tall and showy coneflowers, pigweed, thin-leafed mountain mint, blue vervain, tick trefoil, downy false foxglove, monkey flower, three-seeded mercury and Joe Pye weed are blooming, sure signs of the arrival of Late Summer.
and ironweed kernels still hang to their stalks.
(Verbesina alternifolia) has been called the golden honey plant because this native blooms in the fall when bees are still active and looking for pollen and nectar.
White snakeroot, ironweed, boneset, wingstem
, tall coneflowers and gray-headed coneflowers are budding.