Moreover, European blackbirds, which have been shown to transmit spirochetes to xenodiagnostic
larval ticks (7), are dismissed as transmission hosts on the basis of earlier negative transmission results from Matuschka (8), which came from two birds and pre-dated knowledge of the genetic diversity and apparent host specificity of B.
Gern and Humair insert the parenthesis (implied xenodiagnosis) into a citation of our text, thereby, equating reservoir competence with a simple xenodiagnostic
test that partially addresses only the third component of this definition.
Robins acquired infection and became infectious to almost all xenodiagnostic ticks soon after exposure to infected nymphal ticks.
To establish that these birds had not already been infected by Lyme disease spirochetes, nymphs derived from xenodiagnostic larval deer ticks that had engorged on them were examined by dark-field microscopy.
Apparently, mice exposed to ticks infected with the agent of HGE may develop an immune response to the pathogen but not become infectious for xenodiagnostic
l, genospecies associate solely with rodent reservoir hosts, we compared the genospecies prevalence in questing nymphal lxodes ticks with that in xenodiagnostic ticks that had fed as larvae on rodents captured in the same site.
We then identified the spirochete genospecies that naturally infected rodents transmitted to xenodiagnostic larvae.