For example, the chimera has been used to represent the allotransplantation of organs and cells (transplantation between members of the same species), and the lamassu (Figure 1) has been selected as the mythological figure to represent the International Xenotransplantation
Association and its official scientific journal, Xenotransplantation
The most profound barrier to pig-to-primate xenotransplantation
is the rejection of the grafted organ by a cascade of immune mechanisms commonly referred to as hyperacute rejection (HAR), acute vascular rejection (AVR)/humoral xenograft rejection (AHXR), immune cell-mediated rejection, and chronic rejection.
This is so even though the OECD/WHO 2001 Consultation on Xenotransplantation
Surveillance Summary stated, in part:
NZNO believes Maori need to determine if xenotransplantation
will assist Maori health, and any decision made by the Government requires interaction with Maori nurses and doctors.
Several countries have rigorous guidelines and oversight procedures for xenotransplantation
, but in other countries, there is a lack of quality and safety controls, according to the WHO.
In the simulated negotiation for xenotransplantation
, stakeholders were X-Gen (the biotechnology company who had developed the procedure), the National Government, the World Health Organization, the Animal Rights Coalition (a non-governmental organization), and the Patient Rights' Organization (a second NGO).
offers an almost unlimited supply of organs and it also has the potential to assist patients suffering from many other illnesses, such as diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and haemophilia.
These promising studies reflect the significant achievements Immerge has made in the field of xenotransplantation
research," stated Donald B.
SOURCE: National Institutes of Health; International Xenotransplantation
The worldwide nonexclusive license will cover Immerge's work in the development of genetically modified pigs for potential use in xenotransplantation
(the use of animal organs to address human health issues).
The promise of xenotransplantation
is now a reality," declared Alan Colman, research director of PPL Therapeutics, in a 2 January statement from his company announcing the creation through cloning of five female piglets genetically modified to lack a gene that makes porcine organs incompatible with the human immune system.
The US researchers claim they were the first to make the xenotransplantation