Many mangroves have also developed some xeromorphic
features in order to conserve water, including a thick-walled multi-layered epidermis, thick waxy lamellar cuticle, and hairs or scales on the abaxial surface which cover salt glands and stomata (Ball, 1988; Das & Ghose, 1993; Saenger, 2002).
The dense indumentum with its polyphenol content may replace the protective role of the epidermis in some young xeromorphic
Indeed, under drought stress, the high relative apoplastic water content (42- 58%), commonly seen in xeromorphic
plants would contribute to the retention of water at low leaf water potentials (Rodriguez et al.
2011) in angiosperm woods are more effective than vessel grouping as a xeromorphic
feature, because vessels are mostly solitary in woods that have tracheids (or abundant vasicentric tracheids) as an imperforate tracheary element type.
VI Stunted, xeromorphic
, with pneumatophores; Myrmecophytes spp.
The canopy layer is irregular in height, usually between 7 and 12 m, its cover is sparse (50-60%) and is considered a clear microphyll evergreen forest; the leaves are mainly xeromorphic
and mostly microphyllous.
The term "Caatinga" refers to the typical xeromorphic
vegetation of the semiarid Brazilian Northeast, which also includes areas of semi-deciduous and cloud forests, covering a total area of 770 442 [km.
Edaphic conditions can further accentuate the effects of drought; for example, in the south, plants on sand and limestone-derived soils can exhibit xeromorphic
adaptations that are characteristic of climax forms of vegetation (Moat and Smith 2007).
For Rudall (2007), the presence of a hypodermis may be a xeromorphic
feature, as well as the presence of thick cuticles and epidermis, which in combination would diminish the light intensity reaching the photosynthetic tissue.
Winds induce xeromorphic
characteristics in plants, also causing processes of anemomorphosys.
Drought favors oak recruitment and dominance because relative to other deciduous hardwood species, oaks have deep roots, xeromorphic
leaves, and an ability to adjust osmotically, conferring drought tolerance (Bahari et al.
species take place in this zone: Artemisia,, Testuca sulcata (Hack.