SHL and LA are related to the use of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), occurring most frequently with zalcitabine
, stavudine (d4T), didanosine, zidovudine (AZT), and lamivudine and least frequently with abacavir/tenofovir.
Several cases of ototoxicity have been reported in HIV infected patients treated with zalcitabine
(Martinez and French, 1993); didanosine (Colebunders, Dipraetere, Van Wanzeele, and Van Gehuchten, 1998); zidovudine and didanosine (Christensen et al, 1998); stavudine, lamivudine, didanosine and hydroxyurea (Simdon et al, 2001); and post exposure prophylaxis with stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine (Rey et al, 2002).
Peripheral neuropathy is mainly seen with stavudine, didanosine, and zalcitabine
Combination and monotherapy with zidovudine and zalcitabine
in patients with advanced HIV disease.
LHON following the introduction of the strongly mitochondrial toxic nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) zidovudine, stavudine and zalcitabine
(ddC) has previously been reported in patients with the mitochondrial mutations 11778G>A and 14484T>C.
For instance, both zalcitabine
and didanosine may cause tingling or pain in the hands, feet and legs, so they shouldn't be prescribed together.
The drugs documented to most often be associated with pill esophagitis in HIV are zidovudine (azidothymidine), zalcitabine
, and doxycycline.
dagger]) Patient was receiving monotherapy with zalcitabine
peripheral neuropathy) is another complication of chronic alcohol abuse and, given their neuropathic side effects, limits the use of the NRTIs zalcitabine
and stavudine in alcoholics (Moyle and Sadler 1998).
48-50) Similar presentations can occur with other nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors, such as didanosine, lamivudine, and zalcitabine
Zidovudine, didanosine, zalcitabine
, stavudine, and lamivudine all got the FDA green light before clinicians could craft a regimen with drugs from two classes.
Then in 2001, lamivudine (3TC), stavudine (D4T), zalcitabine
(DDC), didanosine (DDI), and indinavir (IDV) were produced.