Moreover, he believed that zemstvos
, organs of rural self-government in late imperial Russia, had held out significant political promise.
He disdains the zemstvos
and therefore cannot see any possible good emerging from them.
The Journal evaluated modernization based on the performance of local self-government institutions known as the zemstvos
that Alexander II's Great Reforms had created on two levels (province and district) in Russia's European territories in 1864.
, the provincial and local governmental institutions created by the Great Reforms of the 1860s, administered local roads.
A particularly interesting point is the emergence of the new problem of self-arson in the 1870s and 1880s, a result, ironically, of the compulsory fire-insurance programmes sponsored by the organs of rural local self-governance, the zemstvos
The situation began to change in 1864 when Czar Alexander II initiated a system of local government, the Zemstvos
, with responsibility for, among other things, health (Krug 1976).
Self-governance, grassroots opinions, municipal and "small area" democracy he sees as growing out of the Russian Orthodox medieval tradition of zemstvos
While state ministries took the lead in trying to organize large-scale resettlement, zemstvos
and other public organizations, like relief societies and local agricultural committees, actively assisted in the process because resettlement was widely regarded as the kind of "all-national cause" (vsenarodnoe delo) that seemed to require educated society's (obshchestvo) commitment and participation.
Factory inspectors and doctors recorded the deplorable conditions of female workers in zemstvos
Both centers of power also had well-scripted plans to ameliorate worker-management conflict by creating factory and district mediation boards, allowing workers to organize committees and other representative groups within and outside their plants, bringing district zemstvos
into the countryside, empowering local land committees with peasant participation--all familiar elements of government policy that were formally in place before the formation of the first coalition in early May.
The result was a flood of paper, from intellectuals, zemstvos
, and, above all, from peasants.
Stolypin in fostering (or impeding) emerging democracy, the growth of the zemstvos
, liberals in the provinces, nationalist policies, and the food crisis of 1916, the authors assert that democratic institutions grew significantly during the postreform period, especially between 1890 and 1914.