PXF has also been known to cause a weakening of lens zonules
leading to lens drop and other complications during cataract surgery.
10 Also, it's common observation that cataract surgery in vitrectomized eye is more challenging than routine cases due to harder nucleus, variable and unstable AC dynamics, weak zonules
and possibility of posterior capsular damage during PPV.
The younger white population who are slightly myopic may present with lens zonules
rubbing on the back of the iris causing pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS); (15) this results in iris transillumination, in a ring in the middle of the iris.
In pseudoexfoliation syndrome, the lens zonules
are more fragile and have diminished elasticity, and spontaneous intraocular lens dislocation may occur due to capsular fibrosis.
This developmental anomaly is caused by the failure of closure of fetal fissure and is often associated with several other ocular anomalies, including iris coloboma, loss of inferior lens zonules
, cataract and optic disc abnormalities.
Pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) results from posterior bowing of the iris and rubbing between the lens zonules
and epithelial layer of the iris, and usually affects myopic eyes in men during the third to fourth decade of life.
Part 5, on primary IOL implantation with compromised capsules, contains three subsections on recommendations for broken capsule with intact zonules
, compromised zonules
and/or lack of capsular support, and managing iris abnormalities combined with IOL fixation.
According to the pamphlet, "The abnormal protein seen in this condition settles and weakens the lens zonules
, which are suspensory fibers that hold the lens in place.
The ciliary body has three functions: accommodation, aqueous humor production and maintenance of the lens zonules
They are located within the anterior sclera and provide both protection for the globe and an attachment site for the lens zonules
, which function to change the shape of the lens during focusing.
Without adequate B6 at the right lime, remodeling the pigmentary layer of the iris is accomplished with surrogate proteins, which are vulnerable to flaking off with athletic bouncing and with unfortunate engagement with the zonules
Ectopia lentis, a common manifestation of homocystinuria and Marfan syndrome, can be due to subluxation (lens zonules
are still in place) or dislocation (no zonules