A comparative study of tentacle regeneration and number in symbiotic and aposymbiotic Hydra viridis: effect of zoochlorellae
The plasmodium of the Myxomycetes is so sweet: the eyeless Prorhynchus has the dull color of the born-blind, and its proboscis stuffed with zoochlorellae
solicits the oxygen of the Frontoniella antypyretica: he carries his pharynx in a rosette, a locomotive requirement, horned, stupid, and not at all calcareous .
Alternatively, heterogeneously distributed or temporally variable intra-host variation in symbiont populations--previously reported for Symbiodinium in tropical corals (Rowan et al, 1997; van Oppen et al, 2001; Ulstrup and Van Oppen, 2003) and anemones (Venn et al, 2008), and for populations of zoochlorellae and zooxanthellae in An-thopleura (Secord and Augustine, 2000)--may have systematically biased our samples, which were taken exclusively from tentacles in spring and summer.
Distribution patterns of Zoochlorellae and Zooxanthellae hosted by two Pacific Northeast anemones, Anthopleura elegantissima and A.
Analysis of the algae present in the tentacles and body column indicated that zoochlorellae
(ZC) were only rarely hosted by Anthopleura elegantissima; zooxanthellae (ZX) were the dominant symbiont in tidepool and crevice habitats exposed to sunlight between the shore heights of 0.
Dinoflagellate symbionts are commonly called zooxanthellae, and symbiotic green algae are called zoochlorellae
muscatinei and zoochlorellae
with respect to photosynthesis and carbon translocation (Engebretson and Muller-Parker, 1999; Verde and McCloskey, 1996, 2001, 2002), occurrence of UV-absorbing mycosporine-like amino acids (Shick et al.
elegantissima of several types: specimens having predominately zooxanthellae (dinoflagellates comprising at least two species) or zoochlorellae
as symbionts; those containing algal endosymbionts of both kinds, and naturally occurring aposymbiotic specimens that lack the endosymbionts typically found in most specimens.
In addition, a study of the temperate sea anemone Anthopteura etegantissima demonstrated that high temperature (20[degrees]C) decreased zoochlorellae
density and had little effect on zooxanthellae (Saunders and Muller-Parker, 1997).
Heterotrophic bacteria, autotrophic cyanobacteria, zoochlorellae
, and zooxanthellae are common symbionts in Porifera, where they may actually constitute most of the sponge tissue.
divide synchronously within the host cell following host feeding (McAuley, 1982, 1985, 1986); mitosis of digestive cells and their symbiotic algae increases about 12 h after feeding (McAuley, 1982).
The intertidal sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima contains two symbiotic algae, zoochlorellae
and zooxanthellae, in the Northern Puget Sound region.