I submerged the zoophilous
chapter of my life in the amnesia of a drunken binge that lasted nearly a year, if you add up all the drinks I imbibed, the scenes I caused, the hangovers, the vague and traumatic sexual episodes with women each more despicable than the one before, the fears, the blaming, the police stations, the loss of jobs and getting drunk all over again to erase the mishaps that were multiplying.
Despite the existence of these alternative mechanisms for IA, there is one group of dioecious plants whose ancestors appear to lack alternative outbreeding devices: the majority of dioecious and gynodioecious zoophilous (animal-pollinated) species do not have self-incompatible ancestors (Baker, 1959), nor do such species exhibit dichogamy (Cruden, 1988), i.
Specialization of male and female reproduction, in terms of mechanisms that would aid in the production of fruit or pollen or facilitate the dissemination of pollen or seeds, is seen in many zoophilous dioecious species.
However, in the vast majority of zoophilous species, the floral features that differentially influence the male and female components of reproductive success do not promote the efficiency of reproducing via one sexual function while simultaneously reducing the efficiency of the other.
Not surprisingly, then, Bond and Midgley (1988) report that wind-pollinated species of Leucandendron are more dimorphic than zoophilous species.
Similarly, Gehring and Monson (1994) found that nutrient availability did not differentially influence the rate of photosynthesis of males and females of Silene latifolia, a zoophilous dioecious species commonly believed to have evolved from a gynodioecious ancestor.
We know of no case where male and female flowers of zoophilous plants have different colors or, for example, where one is bilaterally symmetrical and the other radially symmetrical; i.
Flowers actinomorphic or very rarely zygomorphic (Dorothea); bisexual or rarely unisexual; nearly always epigynous; often heterostylic (Cinchona): pollination zoophilous
(mainly entomophilous, especially Diptera, Hymenoptera, and Lepidoptera) or rarely anemophilous (Theligonum).