West African 'Ulama
' and Salafism in Mecca and Medina: Jawab al-Ifrigi -- The Response of the African
Guardians of Faith in Modern Times: 'Ulama
' in the Middle East.
Lebanon's Historical Link To Iran's Shi'ites: First contact between Iranian and Lebanese Shi'ites was established at the beginning of the 16th century when some of the senior Lebanese Shi'ite 'ulama
' (clerics) were invited to Persia by the newly established Safawid dynasty.
The party election, which local media have dubbed as a fight between ''young Turks'' and ''ulama
'' or religious teachers, will decide which team will lead the PAS, as the party is popularly known, to take on the ruling United Malays National Organization in the coming general election.
(11) For a convincing argument that this has been the case, see Muhammad Qasim Zaman, "Pluralism, Democracy, and the 'Ulama
,'" in Robert W.
(45) However, by this time a significant number of high-ranking ulama such as Mirza-i Qomi stayed aloof from the court, looking at the Qajar monarchy as "a necessary evil." (46) Even the sympathetic authors quoted in Jihadiyeh implicitly acknowledge the Shah's military authority by default, confessing that it is a result of the 'ulama
's incapability to defend Islam against invasion by infidels, a task which could only be fulfilled by the Shah.
This notion is borne out by the choice of a Shi'i high 'ulama
as one of the three members of the Leadership for Iraqi National Congress, which is obviously supported by the US administration, the two other Leadership members being a Kurdish nationalist and a Sunni ex-military officer.
In Search of the True Political Position of the 'Ulama
: An Analysis of the Aims and Perspectives of the Chronicles of Abd al-Rahman al-Jabarti (1753-1825).
The election was billed as a fight between the ''Young Turks'' and the ''ulama
'' or Muslim clerics.
In modern Egypt, and under the impact of both colonialism and modernization, the author argues correctly that the position of the 'ulama
went through a major transformation.
Yet even here the similarity breaks down in so far as Ben Badis and the 'Ulama
movement did not use coercion to achieve their aim, although they did mount scathing verbal attacks against sufi orders.
This short book (the main text is 153 pages, including fourteen tables) is a study of the scholarly community of eleventh-century Baghdad, "a time when the fluid society of the 'learned', the 'ulama
', began to emerge as a more defined and exclusive group." It sets for itself the following objective: "to define the link between the cultural and social practices involved in the process of the transmission of Islamic learning, and the construction of social bonds and identities in a historical time and a specific place." Ephrat poses a number of questions, fundamentally: "How were scholarly networks formed, and what were the bonds that made the loose associations of the 'ulama