-ize


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-ize

or -ise
suff.
1.
a. To cause to be or to become: dramatize.
b. To cause to conform to or resemble: Hellenize.
c. To treat as: idolize.
2.
a. To treat or affect with: anesthetize.
b. To subject to: tyrannize.
3. To treat according to or practice the method of: pasteurize.
4. To become; become like: materialize.
5. To perform, engage in, or produce: botanize.

[Middle English -isen, from Old French -iser, from Late Latin -izāre, from Greek -izein, v. suff.]

-ize

or

-ise

suffix forming verbs
1. to cause to become, resemble, or agree with: legalize.
2. to become; change into: crystallize.
3. to affect in a specified way; subject to: hypnotize.
4. to act according to some practice, principle, policy, etc: economize.
[from Old French -iser, from Late Latin -izāre, from Greek -izein]
Usage: In Britain and the US -ize is the preferred ending for many verbs, but -ise is equally acceptable in British English. Certain words (chiefly those not formed by adding the suffix to an existing word) are, however, always spelt with -ise in both Britain and the US: advertise, revise

-ize

a verb-forming suffix occurring orig. in loanwords from Greek that have entered English through Latin or French (baptize; barbarize; catechize); within English, -ize is added to adjectives and nouns to form transitive verbs with the general senses “to render, make” (actualize; fossilize; sterilize; Americanize), “to convert into, give a specified character or form to” (computerize; dramatize; itemize; motorize), “to subject to (as a process, sometimes named after its originator)” (hospitalize; terrorize; galvanize; oxidize; winterize). Also formed with -ize are a more heterogeneous group of verbs, usu. intransitive, denoting a change of state (crystallize), kinds or instances of behavior (apologize; tyrannize), or activities (economize; philosophize; theorize). Also, esp. Brit., -ise1. Compare -ism, -ist, -ization.
[Middle English -isen (< Old French -iser) < Late Latin -izāre < Greek -izein]
usage: The suffix -ize, one of the most productive in the language, has been in common use since the late 16th century. Some of the words formed with -ize have been widely disapproved in recent years, particularly finalize (first attested in the early 1920s) and prioritize (around 1970). Such words are most often criticized when they become, as did these two, vogue terms, suddenly heard and seen everywhere, esp. in the context of advertising, commerce, education, and government - forces claimed by some to have a corrupting influence upon the language. Both finalize and prioritize are fully standard, occurring in all varieties of speech and writing, although rarely found in belletristic writing. ―The British spelling -ise is becoming less common in British English, esp. in technical or formal writing, chiefly because some influential British publishers prefer the American form.
Translations

-ize

vb suf-isieren; authorizeautorisieren; rationalizerationalisieren
References in periodicals archive ?
(2) Specifically, this paper relies on a sample of 45 verbal clusters in Present-Day English where forms in -ize and zero-derivation compete (or did compete) for the expression of the semantic category CAUSATIVE.
In this sense, this paper aims at elaborating on the competition between the verbal suffix -ize and zero-derivation (3) (Fernandez-Alcaina 2017) by exploring to what extent derivational subparadigms provide information on, and possibly influence the result of, the competition of their base forms.
Previous research (Fernandez-Alcaina 2017) relies on an initial sample of 816 verbs in -ize expressing the semantic category CAUSATIVE extracted from the Oxford English Dictionary (henceforth, OED).
i) it considers available and unavailable forms in the creation of the subparadigms with bases in -ize and zero-derivation, and
According to lexicographic data, the verbs mongrel and mongrelize began to compete around 1630 (when the form in -ize is first attested), but in the second half of the 17th century, the zero-derived form was lost and only the -ize verb remained.
Although our previous research focused only on the competition between -ize and zero-derivation, this paper also includes other verbal bases in -ate, -ify, -en and the prefix en-, for a more comprehensive picture of verbal competition.
Figure 2 shows the number of forms attested only in the OED and those attested in the OED and the COCA classified by the affix in their base (-ize, zero-derivation or other affixes such as -ate, -ify, -en and the prefix en-):
In British English, verbs that end in -ize can also end in -ise, but not vice versa.
The Oxford Dictionary certainly prefers -ize to -ise in those words where both are acceptable.
Incidentally, -yse deserves comment as the standard spelling for analyse, catalyse, paralyse, etc., as it is not a suffix like -ize and -ise.
In American English, of course, both -ize and -yze are standard usage.
I've discussed this whole issue on my blog: 'On -ise vs -ize'--see http://davidcrystal.