Van Marle (1985) (and more recently Booij 2010) argues for 'affix substitution' in the case of Dutch female personal nouns in -ster. In this view, these are derived from bases in -er by replacing the -er affix with -ster (e.g.
3 Female personal nouns ending in -ster, -es and -in
wandelaarster, rekenaarster ('-ster after -aar') b.
loop]v-ster walk-FEM 'female that walks' serveer]v-ster serve-FEM 'female that serves' doorzet]v-ster persist-FEM 'female that persists' werk]v-ster work-FEM 'female that works' As can be seen, it seems to be the case that -ster is denominal in (6a), whereas it is deverbal in (6b).
Under this analysis it is purely coincidental that both aar and -ster are separate affixes elsewhere in the system, and second, it fails to explain why the surfacing of the part -aar exactly mirrors the conditions (after schwa followed by a coronal sonorant) under which this allomorph of -er occurs.
Van Marle proposes that the suffix -ster replaces the affix -er.
We would like to argue for an analysis in which -aar and -ster are two separate affixes (contra De Vries & Van Santen 1981), and in which there is no affix replacement (contra Van Marle 1985 and Booij 2010).
However, the sequence -er-ster is ill-formed and a rule of haplology applies that deletes the left affix (-er) in the context of the following -ster. So, the data in (6) can be represented as follows:
zang-er-es 'sing-er-FEM' winn-ar-es 'win-er-FEM' dicht-er-es 'poemwrite-er FEM' zond-ar-es 'sinn-er-FEM' onderwijz-er-es 'teach-er-FEM' dien-ar-es 'serve-er-FEM' The first question is why we find -es rather than -ster in these cases.
(14) -ster does not attach to -aar precisely in those cases in which -aar idiosyncratically replaces -er.
"I have never seen Andy Web W -ster in all my time as lean and t as he is at this moment in time.
"Conor omas and Jordan Clarke, it goes without saying, are exceptional athletes and I come to expect it from them but Web W -ster, I've never seen him looking so good." Asked if it is a statement of TURN TO PAGE 62 intent from the veteran defender to stamp his mark in the team and maintain his playing career for as long as possible, Pressley said: "I think it's a sign that he wants to play for as long as he can and it's education from the player.