is an industrial chemical that is primarily used in the production of synthetic rubbers and polymers (White 2007); it is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, is present in both automobile exhaust and cigarette smoke, and is classified as carcinogenic to humans by the World Health Organization/International Association for Research on Cancer (WHO/IARC) (Baan et al.
For example, in a current series of posts under the title #WMA We met already, Performance Intermediates is showing where products such as 1,3-butadiene
are encountered in everyday life.
The chemicals released in the week after Harvey made landfall, including benzene, 1,3-butadiene
, hexane, hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, toluene and xylene.
But as the consumption of alternative fuels becomes comparable to that of the liquid fuels, other unregulated emissions like Methanol (CH3OH), Ethanol (C2H5OH), Formaldehyde (HCHO), Acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), Formic Acid (HCOOH), Acetic Acid (CH3COOH), Propene (C3H8), Ethylene (C2H4), Ethyne (C2H2) Benzene (C6H6), 1,3-Butadiene
(1,3-C4H6), Toluene (C7H8), Butene (C4H8) etc.
Heating ALA or oils high in ALA has been shown to produce a number of potential or probable carcinogens, including 1,3-butadiene
, benzene, and acrolein.
Carcinogens contributing the greatest amounts to the total statewide cancer-specific model scores included: chromium, polycyclic aromatic compounds and 1,3-butadiene
With alkylate petrol, the proportion of 1,3-butadiene
decreases at engine loads of 100 W and 200 W.
That led to the installation of five monitoring wells that found troubling levels of benzene, 1,3-butadiene
, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, tetrachlorethylene, trichloroethylene and vinyl chloride--all considered to carry serious health risks.
Also discussed are the reactions of cascade cyclizations, heterocyclization involving enyne-carbodiimides, and new achievements in some classical cycloaddition reactions, such as the Diels-Alder condensation with acetylenic dienophiles, [2+2] cycloadditions with an acetylene component leading to the creation of a cyclobutene ring, and new results in cyclobutene syntheses by [2+2] acyclization of phosphorus containing 1,3-butadiene
derivatives synthesized starting with propargyl-type alcohols.
1 (CREG) (c) Toluene 21 300 (cEMEG) (c) Ethylbenzene 17 1000 (cEMEG) ([dagger]) Xylene 20 200 (cEMEG) n-Hexane 9 2,100 (cEMEG) 1,3-butadiene
Affected sources are those facilities that generate or produce the following HAPs of concern above the OSHA thresholds: 1,3-butadiene
, 1,3-dichloropropene, acetaldehyde, chloroform, ethylene dichloride, hexachlorobenzene, methylene chloride, quinoline, hydrazine, and compounds of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, and nickel.
Also, air toxics emitted by mobile sources, known as MSAT (mobile source air toxics) are identified, including: benzene, 1,3-butadiene
, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, naphthalene and diesel particulate matter (PM) (USEPA 2007).