Kenyan agronomists and coffee marketing agents have raised the red flag over the use of weed killers suspected to cause cancer.The two parties say 2,4-D
and Monsanto's Roundup, which are used to eliminate weeds in coffee, tea and sugarcane among other crops, are harmful to human health.
The aim of the present study is to investigate the oxidative stress index in Capoeta capoeta treated with carbaryl and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D
Florasulam + 2,4-D
applied at the dose 3.75g a.i x [ha.sup.-1] + 180g a.i x [ha.sup.-1] at the growth stage BBCH 30;
Stalks of conventional cultivars not transgenic for the resistance to herbicides can be controlled with glyphosate and 2,4-D
(Yang et al., 2006; Greenberg et al., 2007; Ribeiro et al., 2015).
When comparing the need for pollinators, the use of products with phytohormonal properties (2,4-D
: 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) is relatively inexpensive, since with 15 mL commercial product 2,4-D
is enough to spray a cultivated hectare with pumpkins (Franco, 1999).
The media were supplemented with 2,4-D
, in 0.0, 4.5, 6.7, and 9 [micro]mol [L.sup.-1] concentrations, and BAP in 0.0, 4.5, 6.7, and 9 [micro]mol [L.sup.-1] concentrations, totaling 16 types of cultivation medium.
Application of 2,4-D
before CB gave higher juice mass (47.75%) although the results were statistically non significant with control, whereas after CB application of Put (0.1 mg L-1), 2, 4-D (10 mg L-1) and Spm (0.1 mg L-1) had statistically lower juice mass 42.71%, 42.17% and 42.03%, respectively in comparison with control (50.18%) (Fig.
6- Benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D
) supplemented in Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium were scrutinized as the most suitable combination of plant growth regulators with different concentrations for callus induction in both the varieties.
It is a simple idea, but even some presumptive professionals seem unable to grasp it -- as evidenced by the decision by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, a component of the World Health Organization, to classify the commonly used herbicide 2,4-D
as "possibly carcinogenic to humans."
Many products made from 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D
), an auxin, can be easily found commercially, but they are registered as herbicides (MAPA, 2013).