Two candidate SNPs, rs11568629 (SLC22A6) and rs16967632 (ABCC1
) and four AIMs did not pass genotyping QC and were removed from further analysis.
The three most well-studied transporters known for their efflux capabilities include P-glycoprotein (P-gp; ABCB1), multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1; ABCC1
), and breast cancer resistant protein (BCRP; ABCG2) [11, 21-24].
ATX-LPA axis has been shown to induce chemoresistance by upregulating antioxidant genes, multidrug-resistant transporters (ABCC1
, ABCG2, ABCC2, and ABCC3), aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1), and stem cell maintenance [99, 136].
Each sample was profiled in duplicates for expression of TUBB2A,  TBP, GUSB, GAPDH, EMP2, VIM, VEGFA, PLAU, TWIST1, TP53, TOP2A, SCGB2A2, SATB1, RAD51, PTPRC, PTEN, PIK3CA, PGR, PARP1, MYC, MUC1, MTOR, ABCC1
, MET, KRT19, KRAS, KIT,MKI67, IGF1R, IBSP, FLT1, ESR1, ERBB2, EPCAM, EGFR, CTSD, CDH1, CD44, CD24, AURAK, ALDH1A1, AKT2, ADAM17, ACTB (Actin fi), PPIA, and B2M.
Among those, we selected, for the microarray and RNA-seq analyses, four PG transporters, ABCC1
(also known as MRP1), ABCC9 (also known as sulfonylurea receptor 2 [SUR2]), SLCO4C1 (also known as OATP4C1), and SLCO5A1 (also known as OATP5A1), because these have been shown to be differentially expressed in the uterine endometrium during early pregnancy [10,11].
) is a member of the MRP subfamily, which is involved in multi-drug resis tance (25).
Georges, "Modulation of GSH levels in ABCC1
expressing tumor cells triggers apoptosis through oxidative stress," Biochemical Pharmacology, vol.
Ambudkar, "Evidence for the role of glycosylation in accessibility of the extracellular domains of human MRP1 (ABCC1
)," Biochemistry, vol.
Appropriate medicinal chemistry approaches facilitated by well-established in silico techniques, including homology modeling , MD simulations [60,61], virtual screening [62, 63], QSAR [64, 65], and SBDD , can and have been used to drive therapeutic discovery for ABC proteins, mainly those requiring functional inactivation (i.e., ABCC1
, ABCB1, and ABCG2 as previously mentioned).
Hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) stress can induce the upregulation of the mRNA expression of Abcc1
, Abcc2, and Abcc4 at the BBB.
[sup.99m]Tc-MIBI is a substrate for PGP (P-glycoprotein, gene symbol ABCB1), MRP1 (multidrug resistance protein 1 (gene symbol ABCC1
)), and MRP2 (multidrug resistance protein 2 (gene symbol ABCC2)) and can be used to image their expression in vivo .
Among the human ABC transporter superfamily, ABCB1 (P-gp), ABCC1
(MRP1), and ABCG2 (BCRP), are widely recognized to be associated with cancer MDR (Szakacs et al.