Cardiolipin functions as a proton trap giving ATP synthase
the juice needed to enhance electron transfer and reduce electron leakage.
Alternately, we observed increased expression of three protein subunits from respiratory chain complexes I and V in LRP rats (NADH dehydrogenase ubiquinone ironsulphur protein 8 and the ATP synthase
d and alpha subunits).
Our cells generate fuel with one such engine, a gigantic protein called ATP synthase
, which acts like a kind of molecular waterwheel.
tuberculatum venom can be grouped basically into proteins involved in insect metabolism (annexin B9, nucleoside diphosphate kinase; aconitate hydratase; superoxide dismutase; triose phosphate isomerase; glyceraldehyde-3phosphate dehydrogenase; succinyl-CoA ligase; fructosebisphosphate aldolase; arginine kinase; citrate synthase; enolase; ATP synthase
; 4-hydroxybutyrate coenzyme A transferase; medium-chain specific acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase); transport protein (transferrin); and structural proteins (cyclophilin, actin, and chitinase).
For measurement of LEAK respiration, ATP synthase
was inhibited with 1 [micro]M oligomycin (Sigma-Aldrich, USA).
2008), and the main nuclear-encoded subunits from the F, domain of ATP synthase
such as subunits ATP[alpha] (GenBank accession no.
[F.sub.o][F.sub.1] ATP synthase
is a ubiquitous molecular motor involved in [H.sup.+]-mediated energy conversion in organisms from bacteria to human and has been extensively investigated by a wide variety of methods.
In addition, two subunits of mitochondrial ATP synthase
(encoded by ATP5B and ATP5H) were also increased.
Among the identified proteins, we observed decreases in the expression of phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPX); ATP synthase
subunit O, mitochondrial (ATP5O); glutathione S-transferase Mu 5 (GSTM5), mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 10 (NDUFA10).
RT-PCR analysis was performed according to a previously described protocol  using the cDNA as a template and the following primers: mtDNA: forward 5'-TTTTATCTGCATCTGAGTTTAATCCTGT-3' and reverse 5'-CCACTTCATCTTACCATTTATTATCGC-3'; ATP synthase
: forward 5'-TCCATCAAAAACATCCAGAAAA-37 and reverse 5'-GAGGAGTGAATAGCACCACAAA-3'; ND1: forward 5'-ATCCTCCCAGGATTTGGAAT-3' and reverse 5'-ACCGGTAGGAATTGCGATAA-3'; 18S: forward 5'-TTCGGAACTGAGGCCATGATT-3' and reverse 5'-TTTCGCTCTGGTCCGTCTTG-3'.
The ATP synthasome complex consists of ATP synthase
, inorganic phosphate carrier, and adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) .