In Ergative-Absolutive languages (Basque and Georgian), the terms Ergative case, Absolutive case
and Dative case were used in respect of clause elements in surface paradigms where Subjects of intransitive verbs and Objects of transitives were case-marked and cross-referenced in the agreement elements of the verb identically, and differently from the Subjects of transitive verbs.
Hinuq has a gender system with five genders that are used to mark agreement between nouns in the Absolutive case
and the majority of vowel-initial verbs.
Note that in the Tsezic as well as in other Daghestanian languages typical verbs denoting perception and other psychological states such as SEE, HEAR, WANT/LIKE/LOVE, KNOW and UNDERSTAND mark the subject with the Lative or Dative and the object with the absolutive case
(Comrie and van den Berg 2006; Ganenkov 2006).
Furthermore, for each language all or almost all vowels would then be markers for the Absolutive case
, but most nouns would lack an overt marker for the Absolutive case
A number of examples of this can be found throughout the corpus; note especially the following passage: nali faban(i)=ne-s sidarn(i)=a kul=or=o=m "the mountain cursed the deer (literally: the mountain spoke the deer curses)," where the deer (nali) is the indirect object, but has been promoted to the absolutive case
for discourse reasons.
The word meaning 'fish' is in the absolutive case
(unmarked in this language) when it is the "subject" of an intransitive verb (first example) or the "object" of a transitive verb (third example), and in the ergative case when it is the "subject" of a transitive verb (second example).
Although for some languages, case marking is also neutralized for arguments in actual control position (Nominative and Absolutive case
are the typical instances of this), in others they may still mark semantic functions (the Dative Subject of Icelandic in (4b) is an instance of this).
Nouns, noun phrases, proper names or independent pronouns take Absolutive case
in Maasai unless they occur as postverbal subjects (in which case they take Nominative case, as in 17) above.
sa "poem" is the lowest ranking macrorole of the derived transitive causative verb, and would therefore receive the Absolutive case
, if the case were assigned by the causativized verb.
In the Dual Theory, Koryak reduplication is handled via morphological doubling, the juxtaposition of a noun stem and its truncated counterpart to form a derived stem whose meaning is the same as that of its input daughters but which, in addition, encodes the absolutive case
Lowest ranking core macrorole (in terms of (8)) takes absolutive case
Since Dumi is an ergative language, these features comprise +/-Erg(ative) for ergative and absolutive case