From Salamis to Actium, through Lepanto and the Nile to the naval massacre of Navarino, not to mention other armed encounters of lesser interest, all the blood heroically spilt into the Mediterranean has not stained with a single trail of purple the deep azure of its classic waters.
A frugal mind cannot defend itself from considerable bitterness when reflecting that at the Battle of Actium (which was fought for no less a stake than the dominion of the world) the fleet of Octavianus Caesar and the fleet of Antonius, including the Egyptian division and Cleopatra's galley with purple sails, probably cost less than two modern battleships, or, as the modern naval book-jargon has it, two capital units.
Towards noon whales were raised; but so soon as the ship sailed down to them, they turned and fled with swift precipitancy; a disordered flight, as of Cleopatra's barges from Actium
. Nevertheless, the boats pursued, and Stubb's was foremost.
He told me, "he had for many years been commander of a ship; and in the sea fight at Actium
had the good fortune to break through the enemy's great line of battle, sink three of their capital ships, and take a fourth, which was the sole cause of Antony's flight, and of the victory that ensued; that the youth standing by him, his only son, was killed in the action." He added, "that upon the confidence of some merit, the war being at an end, he went to Rome, and solicited at the court of Augustus to be preferred to a greater ship, whose commander had been killed; but, without any regard to his pretensions, it was given to a boy who had never seen the sea, the son of Libertina, who waited on one of the emperor's mistresses.
The battle of Actium
, decided the empire of the world.
In 31BC, the battle of Actium
, between Antony and Cleopatra and Octavian, took place off the west coast of Greece.
After the defeat of Antony and Cleopatra at Actium
, Antony killed himself on hearing a false report of her death; some say she spread the report herself to gain favor with Octavius by causing Antony
Their union was broken in 31, and Antony was defeated at Actium
. This left Octavius sole ruler, and, in gradual steps, he completed the transformation of Rome from a republic to an empire, as Augustus, its first emperor.
A The Battle of Actium
B The Battle of Mons Grapius C The Trojan War D The Battle of Romulus 15.
The coin, a bronze dupondius, had been struck in 28BC to commemorate the pair's victory over Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium
three years before--the crocodile representing Cleopatra and Egypt, the palm a symbol for victory.