De Kretser, "The activins
and their binding protein, follistatin-Diagnostic and therapeutic targets in inflammatory disease and fibrosis," Cytokine and Growth Factor Reviews, vol.
Borges et al., "Activins
and related proteins in the establishment of pregnancy," Reproductive Sciences, vol.
are either heterodimers or homodimers of inhibin [beta] subunits ([beta]A[beta]A, [beta]B[beta]B, or [beta]A[beta]B) .
are members of the important transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) family of "morphogens," i.e., developmental factors that direct and control the differentiation and eventual fate of early precursor cells.
In the first part of this volume the basic concepts of transforming growth factor [Beta], or TGF[Beta], signaling in normal physiology and cancer pathobiology are described in 32 chapters, with topics that include TGF[Beta] availability, regulators of Smad activity by phosphorylation, activins
and inhibins in cancer progression, and uterine sensitization associated Gene-1.
de Kretser, "Activins
in reproductive biology and beyond," Human Reproduction Update, vol.
The transforming growth factor beta (TGF-[beta]) superfamily, which includes TGF-[beta] isoforms, activins
, and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), is known to regulate many processes, including wound healing, angiogenesis, and immune responses [5-8].
Among the other topics are activins
and inhibins, agonists and antagonists of the TGF-BEta family ligands, regulation of the Smad pathway by signaling cross-talk, and BMP-based therapeutics and the BMP signaling pathways.
FOP is caused by a mutation in the gene for ALK2, which is known as ACVR1, that causes hypersensitivity to certain bone morphogenetic proteins and a neomorphic response to activins
. In the preclinical data presented at the ASBMR meeting, BLU-782 demonstrated exquisite selectivity for R206H mutant ALK2 in cellular assays, while sparing closely related anti-targets including ALK1, ALK3, and ALK6.
Potential local regulatory functions of inhibins, activins
and follistatin in the ovary.
The family of transforming growth factor-[beta] comprises more than 40 members, including TGF-[beta] bone morphogenic proteins (BMP), activins
, and related proteins, all of which are defined through their specific roles in multiple cellular functions, like cell proliferation, death, invasion, and differentiation, not only during development but also during pathogenesis of various diseases.
are expressed in preimplantation mouse embryos and in ES and EC cells and are regulated on their differentiation," Development, vol.