Consider the example in (3a) showing a noun marked by the Adessive case
ending -l (glossed here as 'on') and the underlying syntactic structure in (3b) (data from Viitso 1998).
The expressions function as manner or cause (or occasionally condition) adverbials and consist of the adessive case form of an action nominalization, a genitive attribute realizing the actor argument of the nominalization, and optional adjectival modifiers (1):
The AMC construction would consist of a complex of constraints determining the following properties of the expressions it licenses: their constituent structure, the adessive case form of the nominalizations, the adverbial meaning and function and the semantic type (process) of the expressions, the semantic classes of nominalizations that can enter them, the predicate-argument relationship between the nominalization and the main proposition, and the linking of the actor argument of the nominalization to the genitive NP.
According to the first school, curatives are only the causatives derived from transitive root verbs, and as the marker of a curative verb the derivative governs an adjunct in the adessive case
. The derivation process changes the valence of the root verb, affecting the relation between the constituents of the sentence.
In possessive clauses the possessor-NP is represented as a topical complement in the adessive case, the possessee is encoded as the subject and the verb olema 'to be' serves as the verbal item of the construction (Location Schema according to Heine 1997): (3) (16) Jaani-l ol-i-d hea-d sobra-d Jaan-ADESS be-PST-3PL good-PL:NOM friend-PL:NOM 'Jaan had good friends'
In addition to these specific but rather uncommon patterns, Estonian expresses the experiential relation (including modality) by means of the Location Schema, which is typical of possessive clauses, where topical experiencer is expressed by the adessive case, cf.